Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations. Paleolithic Era. Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) When - 2 million BCE to 10,000 BCE First people lived in East Africa Hunters and Gatherers Nomads – moved to find food Men would hunt game animals and fish Women would collect fruits, berries and other edibles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient Civilizations

  • Ancient Civilizations

  • Paleolithic EraPaleolithic Era (Old Stone Age)When - 2 million BCE to 10,000 BCEFirst people lived in East Africa Hunters and Gatherers Nomads moved to find foodMen would hunt game animals and fishWomen would collect fruits, berries and other ediblesTools Simple tools - spears and axes made of stone, bone or wood. Clothing - skins of animalsShelter cavesFire used for warmth and cooking.

  • Paleolithic Era

  • Paleolithic EraPaleolithic SocietiesSmall groups - 20-30 peopleSpoken languages to communicate Early belief systemsPolytheistic animismBurying the deadAfterlife Showing care for the dead Buried with their tools and weapons

  • Paleolithic EraOut of Africa TheoryPeople migrated from Africa to the rest of the world Scarce resourcesHunting and gathering sustained life BUT people barely survived.People were nomadic because food was scarce

  • Paleolithic Era

  • Neolithic RevolutionNeolithic Revolution (New Stone Age)When - 10,000 BCEImportant discoveries Farming People learned to plant seeds to grow foodDomesticate animalsTamed animals they had been huntingHerded and penned the animalsSources of food, clothing, labor and transportation

  • Neolithic Revolution

  • Neolithic RevolutionImpact of Neolithic RevolutionReliable source of foodAs food supply increases, so did the population Villages of hundreds and cities of thousands emergePermanent communities formedSedentary Agriculture farming in one placeNew Technologies to meet their new needsCalendars know when to plant and harvest cropsMetal tools bronze and then iron (plows, sickles)Irrigation systems brought water to farmsMetal weapons defend their resources and villages

  • Neolithic Revolution

  • River Valley CivilizationsRise of Civilizations Rivers valleys - home to the first civilizations Fertile Land the yearly floods provided arable landFresh Water gave people water sourceTransportation Used the river as a means of transportationTrade civilizations exchanged goods and ideas when people came into contact with one another

  • River Valley Civilizations

  • Rise of CivilizationsCharacteristics of a CivilizationCities populations of thousands Governments provide order, organization and protection Traditional economy based on farming and other skilled crafts such as pottery, clothing and other goodsOrganized religion priests would perform ceremonies to ensure plentiful crops and protection from the Gods (Polytheistic)

  • Rise of Civilizations

  • Rise of CivilizationsSpecialization of labor people to perform different jobs/functions in society Social classes emerge based on ones occupationRuler - Leader of the armyPriests led religious ritualsWarriors - protected resources and citiesMerchants and artisanPeasant FarmerWomens - status declined as men took lead roles as warriorsSystems of writing Used for record keeping. Early writing used pictures and then developed into symbolsArt and architecture Built temples and palaces to honor religious and political leaders.Public works built infrastructure such as roads, bridges and walls for protection

  • Nile Valley CivilizationsRiver Valley Civilizations (4000 BCE1650 BCE)Nile River Valley Egypt (North Africa) Geographic SettingRegion North Africa, Middle EastTopography - Mostly Desert land with little rainfall and sparse vegetationNatural barrier provided protection from invasionNile River - River flows from South to NorthFertile Soil Silt from floods leaves a rich deposit of soilTransportation - highway for travel and tradeCities - Villages merge to form cities Nile Delta - where the Nile emptied into the Mediterranean Sea

  • Nile River Valley

  • Nile River ValleyGovernmentPharaohs ruler of Egypt Divine Right - worshipped as a living GodAbsolute power Centralized Government Bureaucracy government agencies (collecting taxes)Dynasty Ruling family of Egypt; When the pharaoh died, power was passed onto the another family memberMenes Pharaoh (3100 BCE) - United Upper and Lower Egypt to create the first dynastyUsed the Nile to link Upper and Lower Egypt

  • Nile River ValleyReligionPolytheistic Worshipped many gods Amon-Re The Sun God and the Chief GodOsirus God of the Nile, controlled the Niles annual floodAfterlife prepared the dead for life after deathPyramids Tombs and monuments used to store the remains of dead pharaohs as they await the afterlife

  • Nile River Valley

  • Nile River ValleySocietySocial ClassesUpper Class Pharaoh, Priests, NoblesMiddle Class Merchants and artisansLower Class Peasants (Farmers)SlavesRole of Women:Legally own propertyRun businessDivorce

  • Nile River ValleyContributionsPapyrus Egyptian PaperHieroglyphics Writing system that used pictures to represent words and ideasRosetta Stone - translated HieroglyphicsLiterature - poetry, songs, hymns and fictionSurgery and Medicine Mummification helped them diagnose illnesses and perform surgeryCalendar 365 days (solar)Math - Number system based on 10 (10, 100, 1000, etc.)

  • Nile river Valley

  • MesopotamiaTigris & Euphrates Rivers Mesopotamia Geographic SettingRegion Middle EastMesopotamia The land between the riversThe Fertile Crescent Fertile land that stretches from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean SeaFew natural barriers Cultural diffusion exchange of goods and ideasInvasion allowed for several invasions

  • Mesopotamia

  • Mesopotamia - SumerSumerian Civilization (3000 BCE)Government City- States independent areas but shared a common cultureRulers seen as the chief servant to the godsRole of Government Enforced laws, collected taxes, led armies, kept records, maintained city walls and irrigation systemsReligion Polytheistic Gods had human qualities and were tied to the forces of natureEach city-state had their own God or GoddessZiggurats - Stone temples made out of sun-dried bricks Used to show the power of the government and religion

  • Mesopotamia - Sumer

  • Mesopotamia - SumerSocial ClassesUpper Class Ruling family, Govt officials and high priestsMiddle Class Merchants and artisansLower Class Peasants (Farmers)

  • Mesopotamia - Sumer

  • Mesopotamia - SumerContributionsInventionsSailboatWheelPlowWalled citiesIrrigation Systems brought water to farms; expand farmingArchitectureZigguratsWritingCuneiform Writing systems to keep records Literature The Epic of GilgameshMathBasic algebraGeometryNumber system based on 6 (60 minute in an hour, 360 degrees in a circle)

  • Mesopotamia - Sumer

  • Mesopotamia - BabylonBabylonian Civilization Government Centralized government strong central governmentHammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) God-like kingCode of Hammurabi 300 codified laws carved in stone Criminal Law robbery, assault, murderCivil law business contracts, property, taxes, marriage and divorceSpecific punishments for specific lawsHarsh punishments Eye for an EyeSocial inequality laws were harsher for lower classes, women and children

  • Mesopotamia - Babylon

  • Mesopotamia - BabylonContributions Contract - written agreementAstronomy Study of universeLunar calendar (12 months, 7 day week, 24 hr day)Map makers cartographer

  • Indus River ValleyIndus River Valley Indian SubcontinentGeographic SettingRegion - South AsiaMountain rangesHindu Kush Himalayan Monsoons seasonal winds that brought rainfall to the Indian SubcontinentUnpredictable Drought or FloodsIndus River Rich, fertile soil

  • Indus River Valley

  • Indus River ValleyMystery Little is known about the Indus river valley because historians and archaeologists have not been able to decipher the writing system.All that is known comes from archaeological findsCentralized GovernmentWell-Planned Cities Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Streets set up in a grid patternStandardized - weights and measuresReligious TemplesGranaries buildings used to store grainContributionsPlumbing systems baths, drains, sewersIrrigation ditches and flood barriersWheel

  • Indus River Valley

  • Yellow River ValleyYellow River Valley (3000-2500 BCE) Geographic SettingRegion East AsiaNatural barriers mountains, deserts, rainforest, oceanIsolation - cut off from others (early history)River ValleysHuang He Yellow RiverLoess - yellow matter in river that brings nutrients to soilFloods given the nickname, River of SorrowsYangzi River

  • Yellow River Valley

  • Yellow River ValleyGovernmentShang Dynasty 1650 BCE 1027 BCEDynasty Ruling family of China; when the emperor died, another family member took overDecentralized government land and power was delegated to noble families (military leaders) to governKings led nobles into battleOwned small areas of land

  • Yellow River ValleyReligionPolytheistic worshipped many gods and nature spiritsEarly DaoismYin and yang opposing forces that held nature in balanceAncestor Worship honored ancestors with sacrifices and shrines

  • Yellow River ValleySocietySocial ClassesUpper Class - Royals family and noblesMiddle Class - Merchants and artisansLower Class - Peasants farmersMiddle Kingdom - Due to isolation, early Chinese were cut off from other cultures and thought of themselves as the center of the universe

  • Yellow River ValleyContributionsWriting systemThousands of characters made it hard to learnPictographs Drawings of objectsIdeographs Drawings of thoughts and ideas

  • Yellow River Valley

  • Classical Civilizations - ChinaZhou Dynasty China (1027 BCE-221 BCE)GovernmentOverthrow the Shang DynastyMandate of heaven Right to rule comes from