Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations. Review Question. How did the Neolithic Revolution change the nature of human society?. Focus Question. What components must a society have in order to be considered a civilization?. Location of Ancient Culture Hearths. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

  • Review QuestionHow did the Neolithic Revolution change the nature of human society?

  • Focus QuestionWhat components must a society have in order to be considered a civilization?

  • Location of Ancient Culture HearthsWhat environmental conditions were needed to develop the first civilizations?

  • Ancient Mesopotamia

  • GovernmentInitially, priest-kings rule city-statesSumerians (c. 3500 BCE)City-states evolve into empiresAkkadians (c. 2334-2218 BCE)Land owning aristocracy dominatedDevelop a formal legal codesHammurabis Code (c. 1800 BCE)

  • ReligionBelieved in 3,000 godsGoal: Appease gods to control natureArt and literature focus on gods and religionEpic of GilgameshContains a story of an epic floodBuilt ziggurats

  • SocietySocial stratificationSlavery was commonOne could become a slave through war, crime, or debtSlaves were used in temples, public buildings, or private homesPatriarchalWomen could hold most occupationsNoblesFreemenSlaves

  • Economy

  • Science & TechnologyInventions: wheel, sail, and plowBronze metallurgy1st system of writingCuneiform1st number systemBased on units of 10, 60, & 360Astronomy

  • Ancient EgyptRelatively isolatedNile flooded regularly, predictablyProvided rich soil, easy soil to farmCivilization regulated flooding, surveyingControl the Nile; control society

  • GovernmentFormed by 3000 BCEUnified for most of historyEarly KingdomMiddle KingdomLate KingdomTheocracyPharaoh was a god-kingWomen could be pharaohsHatshepsut (1473-1458 BCE)Ramses II

  • ReligionThousands of godsGods have animal and human qualitiesGods & goddessesRelatively egalitarianBelieve in afterlifeHeaven & HellMummificationPyramids & Temples

  • SocietySocial StratificationLimited opportunity for social mobilitySlavery commonWomen have more rightsCould own property, propose marriage, and demand a divorce

  • CultureHieroglyphic writing on papyrusMathematicsGeometryCalendar system365 days (off by 6 hours)MedicineArchitecture

  • Ancient India & China

  • Indus River Valley

    Cities emerge around 2500 BCECulturally unified city-statesHarappa and Mohenjo-DaroMysterious endingEnvironmental degradation vs. Aryan invasion

  • Indus River ValleyPolytheistic religionInfluenced HinduismPlanned cities with large templesUndecipherable writing systemAdvanced technologyPlumbing systems

  • Ancient ChinaDeveloped in isolation along the Huang He (Yellow) RiverShang dynasty emerged c. 1500 BCEWarlike kings & landed aristocracy dominateCities surrounded by massive earthen walls

  • Ancient ChinaChinese SocietyFamily at center of societyExtended-family structureWomen were subordinateChinese CultureBelieved spirits of family ancestors could bring good fortune or disasterOracle bones (right)Bronze & silk

  • Dynastic CycleMandate of HeavenRulers are chose to rule by heaven and will continue to rule as long as heaven is pleased; if heaven is not pleased, heaven will pass the mandate to another family

  • The OlmecOlmec emerge in Mesoamerica c.1400-400 BCE Olmec zone is dense tropical forestHigh rainfall - over 300 cm/year

  • Olmec Government & SocietySeveral city-states with common cultureSocial HierarchyHighest rank is that of the chief Dominated by landed aristocracyLaborers forced to build temples, palaces, and drainage canals

  • Olmec ReligionPolytheisticDeities blended male & female, animal & human characteristicsFeathered-serpent god (right)Shamans organized religious lifeReligion led to development of writing system and calendar

  • Olmec ArtBuilding of clay pyramids and temple moundsParticular sculptural styleJaguars Fine jade carvingColossal heads

  • Norte Chico3000-1800 BCE in PeruPolytheisticFamous for monumental architecture and weavingNo evidence of any art or ceramicsUsed quipu for record keeping

  • Legacy of Ancient CivilizationsWriting systems, religions, and technology was influenced the development of new civilizations and culturesAncient civilizations decline by 1000 BCESubject to nomadic invasionsPolitical and cultural centers shift to new geographical areas (except China)