Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations. What is a Civilization?. The mystery of being human….survival, intelligence, leaders, competition, emotions, greed When did it all begin…putting the pieces together - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient Civilizations

Ancient Civilizations

Ancient CivilizationsThe mystery of being human.survival, intelligence, leaders, competition, emotions, greedWhen did it all beginputting the pieces togetherArchaeologists: Diggers: scientists who study past human life: putting pieces together for the whole storyArtifacts: items from the past such as tools, pottery, bones, arrowheads, shelters. FossilsAnthropologist: the man: scientists who study past human life, concentrating on the human himselfHistorians: people who study the past, use of primary and secondary sources.What is a Civilization?Primary Source: first hand information, I was there, witnessed the information: current newspapers/magazines, pictures/drawings, diaries, journals, document, map, autobiographypersonal correspondence and diaries

works of art and literature speeches and oral histories audio and video recordings photographs and posters newspaper ads and stories laws and legislative hearings census or demographic records plant and animal specimens coins and tools

Primary and Secondary SourcesSecondary Source: information that comes from research, after the factpassing information onResearch papers, biographies, reportshistory books, historical magazines,More Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary and Secondary Sources: Video

Another Look.Use of scientific method: a procedure based on logic and reasonconducted in an orderly mannerlooking to find answers1 method: radiocarbon dating: study the amount of carbon in an item/artifact2. deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA, genetic make-up of humansHow long ago?1. Lets look here.a new site2. create a site grid: the method of dividing the site into sectionseasier to keep track of what was found wherelevel of the find3. The higher the level find the most recent the item4. The tools: shovels, trowels, wooden picks, brushes, sifters.(delicate)5. Every item is a piece of information6. Environmental information: study soil, plant remainsThe DigIt is all a theory: an idea of how something may have happenedneed to find clues to prove a theoryEarly human being: Homo sapiens: lived in central east Africa: 100,000 to 200,000 years ago: similar appearance to modern manMovement: modern man moved, migrated, to other parts of Africa, intoAsia..impact of movement??????Other early human beings: Homo erectus and Neanderthals: moved throughout Africa and AsiaBeringia: area where Asia and North America metHomo Sapiens move throughout North and South America Early Man1. Early man did not live in organized communities2. They were hunters and gathererswanderers3. Survival was most importantlooking for food4. Man uses intelligence to survivebegan to settle5. Plants seeds, grow crops, tame animals, build shelters6. Development of lawsgovernmentBEGINNING OF A CIVILIZATION!

Just Roaming1. A civilization is an advanced society with agriculture, division of labor, multiple cities, organized religion, science/technology, some form of government, and a written language. Five Elements of a CivilizationA. People learn how to grow crops and domesticate animalsB. People build permanent homessettlements, towns, citiesC. People began to develop technology..advanced tools and weapons: wheel, spear, plowD. People made intellectual achievementsuse of the mind: THINKING: PROBLEM SOLVING: writing, calendarE. People began to create rules/laws. Need for order. Beginning of a government

What makes a Civilization?Create a picture of our civilization today including all 5 elements of a civilization.Be creative15 pointsIn color10 pointsNeatness matters10 pointsShow details/examples 25 pointsGive a title10 pointsTotal Points70 pointsTodays CivilizationA time line: pp 82: write 5 statements based on the information pp 8283A map pp 84-85: Write 5 statements based on the information on pp 8485what is the title of this map?Lets read: Gilgamesh the KingResponse Corner #2Begin by looking, reading, and writing.Importance of Major River SystemsRiver systems formed valleysImportance of waterusesRiver valleys location of permanent settlements

The Land Between Two Rivers4 major river systems.earliest civilizationsTigris-Euphrates: southwestern AsiaNile River: AfricaIndus river: southern AsiaHuang He: eastern AsiaRiver Valley.Pictures

Civilization: Sumer: located in fertile crescent of Tigris and Euphrates River valleyVery fertile landSmaller rivers flow into the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers: tributariesTigris meets Euphrates: flow into Persian GulfLand between Tigris and Euphrates: Mesopotamia: land between the riversSumer became first civilization in Mesopotamia

The Tigris and EuphratesFlooding: saint and demonfertile soil but floods could destroyNorthern Mesopotamia: enough rainfallNot true of Southern Mesopotamiahot sunbaked soilLearned to make use of the riverirrigationwater the waterBuilding of dikes to protect from floodsDams: to control the flow of river waterAllowed for farming to become a way of life

Need for IrrigationFirst known settlement in southern Mesopotamia: Ubaid: 5000 BCGrew enough crops to surviveUse of stone hoes and clay sicklesWheat and barleyLived close to fields in huts of reeds and mudWorshiped gods in one-room temples

First Settlement in SumerMore advanced irrigationSurplus cropsNeed for rules and regulationsneed for leadersgovernmentLarger homeslarger templesPainted potteryUbaid culture: foundation for civilization in MesopotamiaChanges in Ubaid CulturePp 100101: ReadPractice the skill: 1--5Reading a Land/ProductThe Emergence of CitiesSumerian cities: Ur, Kish, Uruk, Eridu: grew to be powerful..cities of culture and achievementBy 3000 BC: 12 cities had developed into citi-statesCharacteristics of citi-statesindependentWalled cityLand around cityOwn governmentPopulations of over 5,000..eventually over 60,000Individual citi-states became part of the civilizationCommon language, writing, arts, and crafts among the entire civilization

Independent Sumerian City-StatesGovernment: made up of small group of leaders and a chief leaderMade laws, settled disputes, decided what work had to be done, waged warNeed for ONE leader: idea of monarchy, a government ruled by a king or queenMonarchy passed on by blood-lineKing had complete control: autocracyrule by oneKing had power, authority, and legitimacySumerians practiced polytheism: belief in many gods: one god for each natural event or element of life: god of agriculture, god of transportation, god of warGods must be kept pleasedworshiped the gods in temples

Government and ReligionAgricultural Techniques: innovations: new ways of doing tasks, problem solving: creative: innovativeExample: irrigationFrom claycopper.bronzeEach new way: innovation: life improved, more productive, benefitsPassing on information: almanacsgiving advice: planting, irrigation, crops

MesopotamianAchievementLand critical element of Sumerian lifeHow much do we have????...need for measurementiku or ikum: the field: an iku equaled 37,600 square feetFrom iku to acre: one acre equals 43,560 square feetMeasurement for weight/volume: quartSumerian numbers based on 60.our number system developed FROM the Sumerian number system ( hours, minutes, seconds)Sumerian calendar: 360 day

MeasurementsUse what you havefew trees in southern Mesopotamia but plenty of MUD..make bricks out of mudBuilding of houses: flat-roofed, built close together, facing an open court, thick walls: cool in summer, warm in winterHigher your rankhigher your house, more detailZiggurat: temple, highest and tallest building, as wealth and power grew so did zigguratTop of each ziggurat a shrine for citys godOther buildings built around the of activityBuildings

Wheels: Sumerians attached wheels to carts: two-wheeled/four wheeledChariots pulled by donkeys or oxenUse of caravansBoat transportation: built like basket made from reeds and covered by animal skins: mast and sail in center; first sailboatAlso canoesTransportationSumerians: first written records: clay tablet in Kish 3500 BC: picture symbols that recorded tradeClay tablets found at Uruk: writing system: cuneiform: wedge shaped symbols: over 700 symbolsScribes: those people who knew how to write; recorded history: very important

Writing and LiteratureMake an alphabet in cuneiform and then write three words using your alphabet. Symbols in color.

Your turn

Sumerian cities: center of trade, religion, governmentKey to Sumer: agriculture: meat, fish, grain: surplus: trade: money: powerGovernment and Law: more important/closer to zigguratRole of government: trade, settle disputes, collect taxes, oversaw temples and monumentsRights given to people, except in time of warProperty rights/land and animals takenMore taxes to support a war

Daily Life in SumerUrukagina: ruler of Lagash: laws to prevent government leaders or wealthy from taking advantage of poorUr-Nammu: leader of Urlaws written down: if you dothen this will happen7 laws carved on monument: written governmentoldest know record of ancient law

More daily lifeSpecialization of labor: skills and information to do ONE job WELLTraded services with each otherI give give meOccupations: priests, government officials, scribes, craftsmen, merchants, farmers, fishermenGovernment officials: building projects, distribution of food, schools, taxesScribes: records, wrote letters, stories, songsCraftsmen: jewelers: lapis lazuli, carpenters: shipsWeavers, potters, stonemasons, bricklayers

Life goes onMerchants: buying and sellingSumerians: wheat, barley, metal tools for wood salt, precious stones, copper and tin

TradeMother nature: storms, insectsimpact on lifeSumerians worshipped gods: deitiesgods who controlled natureOffered gifts to please the godsWorshipped thousands of godsMost important: air god, Enlilwater god, Enki, also god of wisdom

Pleasing the GodsSocial classes: a division of the people based on power and wealthHighest rank: king, nobles, priests, military leadersMiddle class: merchants, scribes, craft workers, farmersCould move up the social ladder: work and effortLowest rank: slaves: debtors Sumerian women: more rights than most civilization: could own property, divorce, could be priestesses, or scribes

Social Structure of SumerAkkadian EmpireSumerian city-states: wealth: warSumerians defeated by Sargon and his armySargon: defeateddefeateddefeatedacross all of Mesopotamiabuilding an empireCapital city of empire: Akkad/Akkadian EmpireSargon became emperor, ruled by military rule, kept a standing armyGovernors appointed to control conquered cities, paid tribute to SargonEmpire stretched from what is now Iran to the Mediterranean SeaEmpire will fall

The First Empires17901750 BC: Hammurabi, king of Babylon.united most of MesopotamiaBecame the Babylonian empireEncouraged trade, agriculture, irrigationInstituted a fair tax systemCode of Hammurabi: one collection of laws for all of Babylonian Empire (national laws)Consisted of 282 laws: family relations, taxes, land and business deals, trade, loans, debts, crimesso that the strong should not harm the weak.eye for an eyeBabylonian Empire falls around 1600 BCHammurabi and the Babylonian Empire and His Code1600s BC: Hittites captured and looted BabylonNext came the Kassitesruled for more than 500 yearsadopted Babylonian way of lifeNext: Assyrian Empire: wanted to control trade routesnew weapons to defeat: battering ram, lanceBy 700 BC: Assyrian largest empire in world..all of Mesopotamia, present-day Turkey, Egypt, Persian Gulf areaDeveloped paved roadspostal system: united empirelocks that opened with keys, magnifying glass, first librariesAssyrian Empire falls in 600 BCNew Babylonian Empireruler Nebuchadnezar: Hanging Gardens of Babylonone of the Seven Wonders of the World

Kassite and Assyrian RuleHanging Gardens

Another Picture

Using the map on page 123 answer the following questions:A. What is the title of the mapB. Name 4 bodies of water found on the mapC Name 5 cities found on the mapD. What information is found in the key?

Skill Time: Map Reading Review Rap