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Transcript of Ancient Civilizations:
Kingdoms and Empires of Mesopotamia
Geography & Environmentthe land between the riversOn which continent was Mesopotamia located?Asia; in what is modern day Iraq, Syria & Turkey
The GeographyOn which river did the ancient Mesopotamians settle?Between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers; in an area known as the Fertile Crescent
Early Mesopotamian KingdomsMesopotamian CulturesMesopotamia did NOT represent a unified kingdom, instead it was made up of a series of kingdoms that occupied a specific geographical space
Sumer Akkad BabyloniaAssyriaNeo-BabyloniaPersia
The first civilizationSumer3500 2300 BCEGeography:Located at the southern end of MesopotamiaNear the mouths of the Tigris & Euphrates
Sumerian GeographySumerian GeographyCity-state: A city + its surrounding landsIndependent political units that competed for trade & boundariesi.e. Uruk, Kish, Ur, Lagash
Characteristics:Shared cultureUnique government Outer wallsA central temple/ziggurat
Sumerian GeographySumerian Religion & GovernmentPolytheism:The worship of more than one godBelieved gods were immortal & all powerful; humans were to serve the godsZiggurat:Temples where sacrifices and offerings were made to the gods Animals, food, wine, etc.
Sumerian Religion & GovernmentCity-states were ruled by priest- kings who were viewed as powerful agents of the gods
Sumerian Religion & GovernmentSumerian Culture & KnowledgeDespite their religious practices, Sumerians had little, if any, belief in an afterlifeBelieved that the souls of the dead went to the land of no returnSumerian Culture & KnowledgeDeveloped a form of writing language known as cuneiform
Sumerian Culture & KnowledgeInvention of the wheel (3000 BC)Economy based on farming & tradeCULTURAL DIFFUSION
Sumerian Culture & KnowledgeOther notable contributions:Invention of the sail & plowThe usage of bronzeDevelopment of a number system
Slaves: Foreigners & children sold into slavery21
BabyloniaThe first system of justice1790 1590 BCEThe Babylonian EmpireIn 1792 BC a new empire took control of Mesopotamia BabyloniaReached its height during the reign of Hammurabi
The Babylonian EmpireHammurabis Code:Written code of lawsStressed responsible behaviorCapital punishment
an eye for an eye, a tooth for a toothPunishments based on SOCIAL CLASSLaws focused on ALL aspects of society
The Babylonian EmpireIf the "finger is pointed" at a man's wife about another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for the sake of her husband.
If he breaks another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.
If a son strikes his father his hands shall be hewn off.Hammurabis Code
The accelerating rate of incarceration over the past few decades is just as startling as the number of people jailed: in 1980, there were about two hundred and twenty people incarcerated for every hundred thousand Americans; by 2010, the number had more than tripled, to seven hundred and thirty-one. No other country even approaches that. In the past two decades, the money that states spend on prisons has risen at six times the rate of spending on higher education. Ours is, bottom to top, a carceral state, in the flat verdict of Conrad Black, the former conservative press lord and newly minted reformer, who right now finds himself imprisoned in Florida, thereby adding a new twist to an old joke: A conservative is a liberal whos been mugged; a liberal is a conservative whos been indicted; and a passionate prison reformer is a conservative whos in one.
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The United States incarcerates more of its population than any other country. From 1990 to 2010, the number of people serving time in state and federal prisons more than doubled and is now nearly 2.3 million, according to a recent report (PDF) by the Pew Center on the States. 29