Ancient China. I. Xia (Hsia) and Shang China A. Yellow River 1. Cradle of Chinese civilization 2....
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Transcript of Ancient China. I. Xia (Hsia) and Shang China A. Yellow River 1. Cradle of Chinese civilization 2....
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Ancient China Slide 2 Slide 3 I. Xia (Hsia) and Shang China A. Yellow River 1. Cradle of Chinese civilization 2. Flows through a plain of loess soil a. Sandy soil hundreds of feet deep b. Produced by winds off the Gobi and floods c. Very fertile d. Loose, very flat - devastating floods e. Frequently changes course after a flood 3. Fertile soil and dangerous river spurs growth of civilization Slide 4 B. Xia (Hsia) Dynasty 1. Traditionally dated 2205-1776 BC 2. Semi-mythical - only a small amount of archaeological evidence Slide 5 C. Shang Dynasty (1766-1050 BC) 1. Capital at An yang 2. Tortoise shell oracle bones main source of information 3. City-state based society recognizing the overall authority of the Shang king 4. Cities built mostly of wood -- frequently moved due to war, floods 5. Highly stratified - king lived in great opulence a. Hundreds of servants, soldiers, sacrificed to be buried with king b. Military kept power - monopoly on bronze weapons Slide 6 6. Religion -- shamanistic religion a. Recognized a Deity Above b. Several lesser deities of nature c. Sacrifice and prayers made to ancestors, who interceded with gods d. Kings were high priests but not divine e. Religion closely tied to astronomy, celestial occurrences f. Emphasis on magic, fertility -- religious rites included drinking, dancing, human sacrifice g. Kings constant drunks used human sacrifice for entertainment. Slide 7 Slide 8 II. The Western Zhou (Chou) (1122-771 BC.) A. Zhou kings invaded from western China, killed Shang king 1. King Wen, King Wu, Duke of Zhou -- semi-mythical founders of dynasty B. Large land and no communications. How rule? Feudalism 1. King gave land and its contents to a vassal a. Usually a relative b. Someone who had shown valor, intelligence 2. The Vassal a. Pledged allegiance to king (provide protection) b. Paid taxes c. Defended king's lands for him Slide 9 3. King had the Mandate from heaven -- a. King received power from heaven, not from descent b. King had to act morally c. More rational than the magic-based thought of Shang period Slide 10 C. Feudalism: BASED ON LOYALTY AND TRUST D. Social Hierarchy Zhou feudal system 1. King ("son of heaven) 2. Vassals (almost complete local power) 3. Fighting men, political leaders 4. Artisans 5. Farmer/peasants Slide 11 E. Feudalism unified "Chinese" culture 1. Cornerstones of Chinese development a. kinship b. moral code Slide 12 Slide 13 III. The Eastern Zhou (771-256 BC) A. Feudal relationships deteriorated 1. Time creates distance in loyalty and trust 2. Vassals gained more and more political power 3. Vassals gain more riches than the kings 4. Vassals (not King) control military power. 5. King became a figure head with no power. 6. King forced to leave his capital, move eastward to safety B. Two periods of the Eastern Zhou 1. Spring and Autumn period 771-481 BC - feudal system breaks down and states competed Not always open rebellion Not always open rebellion 2. Warring States period 481-256 BC - three of every four years were taken up in warfare Civil War open rebellion Civil War open rebellion Slide 14 I. States of the Early Eastern Zhou (around 500 BC), also Spring & Autumn Period, but the actual existence of such coherent states is doubtful, dozens - if not hundreds - of smaller principalities existed & were only swallowed by the bigger states in the Warring States Period. Slide 15 Slide 16 C. State view themselves as INDEPENDENT 1. Stronger states to take over weaker ones 2. Originally 70-100 feudal states 3. Warring States period, seven major states 4. At end of Warring States period, there was only one central state 5. CHIN: How would it be ruled?????? a. Iron Fist: strong centralized political system b. End of feudalism D. Land and people scarred after 225 year of WAR Slide 17 E. Growth of philosophy: attempting to heal 1. Confucianism: Confucius (551-479 BC) a. Interested in political and ethical behavior (not religious) b. It is all about the relationship c. Take Action and seek to achieve the Dao (way) d. Two key aspects: Duty: family and community Duty: family and community Humanity: compassion and empathy Humanity: compassion and empathy 2. Daoism (Taoism): Laozi??? a. Achieve the way through inaction b. Act spontaneously, let nature take its course. Slide 18 F. Legalism as the Answer (mandates healing) 1. Developed in Qin (Ch'in) state 2. People are not capable of being good 3. Legalism - highly rationalistic a. Strict and detailed laws, impartially applied b. All serve the state 4. Regimented society 5. Feudal lords replaced with bureaucracy 6. War is good 7. Makes people disciplined, submissive