ANCIENT CHINA

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ANCIENT CHINA. World History 9 Honors. CHINA: HUANG HE RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION. Huang He River is also known as the Yellow River Located in Eastern China Two early civilizations and dynasties were established in this region: Shang Dynasty (1750 – 1045 B.C.E.) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ANCIENT CHINA

ANCIENT CHINAWorld History 9 Honors Huang He River is also known as the Yellow RiverLocated in Eastern ChinaTwo early civilizations and dynasties were established in this region:Shang Dynasty (1750 1045 B.C.E.)Zhou Dynasty (1045 221 B.C.E.)CHINA: HUANG HE RIVERVALLEY CIVILIZATION

Earliest Chinese dynastyLittle is known about the ShangVery few written documentsEarliest documents are oracle bone inscriptionsCities served as political and religious centersDeveloped the first divination techniquesThe interpretation of phenomena in the natural world as signs of the gods will and intentionsEarly China: Shang Dynasty

Overthrew the Shang dynastyResponsible for the Mandate of Heaven theoryAn ideology in which God grants power to the ruler of China and takes away that power if the ruler fails to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjectsThe government became decentralized when local leaders began to act on their own, posing a threat to Zhou ruleEarly China: Zhou Dynasty

Chinas first empire that lasted from 221 206 B.C.E.Shi Huangdi was a strict and authoritative ruler who united ChinaShi Huangdi believed in legalism strict laws, harsh punishmentsShi Huangdi supervised the building of the Great WallCHINA: QIN DYNASTY

Centralized government (not as brutal as the Qin Dynasty)Expanded Chinese territoryMade contact with India and the Middle East (Silk Road)Most famous Han ruler Wu TiWu Ti enforced peace, emphasized Confucian values and teachings, and set up civil service examinationsPatriarchal societyWomen were expected to obey males (the five relationships)Gentry scholar officials, upper class, privileged, educatedEnjoyed a time of prosperity

CHINA: HAN EMPIRE

Are these codes fair or unfair? What if we had to live by these codes?CHINA: BELIEF SYSTEMSConfucianismSon must obey their father

Younger brother must obey their older brotherWife must obey their husbandSubject must obey their rulerFriends are equal WHERE WAS IT FOUNDED?ChinaWHO IS THE FOUNDER?ConfuciusWHAT IS THE SACRED TEXT?The AnalectsWHERE DID IT INFLUENCE?China

CHINA: BELIEF SYSTEMSConfucianism

MAJOR BELIEFSFilial Piety: respect for parents, elders5 Relationships: set of five superior to inferior relationships that control societyMoral & ethical conduct leads to harmony/order

ConfucianismSUPERIORFather, Ruler, Husband, Elder BrotherINFERIORSon, Ruled, Wife, Younger BrotherSet a Good ExampleObedience and Loyalty WHERE WAS IT FOUNDED?ChinaWHO IS THE FOUNDER?Han feiziWHAT IS THE SACRED TEXT?NoneWHERE DID IT INFLUENCE?China during the Qin Dynasty

CHINA: BELIEF SYSTEMSLegalism

MAJOR BELIEFS

Human nature was evil and required restraint and discipline

Strict laws, harsh punishments

SHI HUANGDI: Leader of the Qin Dynasty who practiced legalism

Legalism

The fall of the Han began in the third century C.E.Corrupt officials, barbaric invasions, uprisings of starving peasants, banditry, poverty and despairHired foreign soldiers served in the army for pay, but were not loyal to the Han stateAfter barbaric attacks, Chinese fled to the Yangzi River ValleyDECLINE OF THE HAN

A large empire that gave a great deal of power to local nobility in order to ensure controlBuddhist monasteries that supported Tang rule were rewarded with monetary gifts, tax exemptions, and land grantsReinstituted the tributary system both Japan and Korea paid tribute to the TangTang capital, Changan, was a major trading center that attracted people from all over Changan became a center for cultural exchangeTook part in Indian Ocean trade

TANG DYNASTY 618 907 C.E.

In the 8th Century the Tang began to be threatened by rival statesInternal rebellionOverexpansionBuddhism became the scapegoat for many of the problems faced by the Tang EmpireAccused of being a foreign evilAccused of draining money from the stateAccused of causing the breakdown of the familyTHE FALL OF THE TANG

Was never as large as the TangMade outstanding scientific and technological contributionsUsed their knowledge of astronomy to build a mechanical celestial clock and to improve the compass and the junk (Chinese seafaring ship); improved iron and steel productionEconomic accomplishmentsPaper moneyFootbinding symbolized the restrictions on women in Song China and became a status of the elite in ChinaSONG DYNASTY 960 1279 C.E.