Ancient China

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Ancient China. Beliefs and Philosophies. Effort to make sense of chaos led to creation of many new Chinese philosophies, or ways of looking at the world. Of many philosophies created during late Zhou period, two became influential in later Chinese history: Confucianism Daoism. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient China

Ancient China

Ancient ChinaBeliefs and PhilosophiesThe conflicts of the late Zhou period led many Chinese thinkers to question the nature of society and peoples roles in it. Effort to make sense of chaos led to creation of many new Chinese philosophies, or ways of looking at the world Of many philosophies created during late Zhou period, two became influential in later Chinese history:ConfucianismDaoism

New Philosophies2ConfuciusConfucianism based on teachings of scholar named Kongfuzi, better known as Confucius, who thought people should treat one another humanelyShould express love, respect for others, honor ones ancestorsAnalectsRuler should treat subjects fairly; subjects reward ruler with respect, loyaltyPeople should respect members of family, devote selves to public serviceConfucian ideas spread elsewhere in Asia, including Korea, Japan, VietnamLove and RespectBelieved that love, respect had disappeared and was responsible for violence in society; restoring respect for tradition would make society stableThoughts on how to improve society collected in book, AnalectsConfucianism3ConfucianismKung Fu TzeBorn in 551 BCLived during Zhou/Chou dynastyTime of lax moralityWandered through many states, advising rulersWritingDealt with individual moralityPolitical power of rulersSocial ethicsAfterlifeSimilar to Buddhist or TaoistConfucianismThe Five Relationships ruler and peopleparent and childolder brother and younger brotherhusband and wifebetween friend and friend

ConfucianismParts of teachingLi: includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etcHsiao: love within the familylove of parents for their childrenLove of children for their parentsYi: righteousnessXin: honesty and trustworthinessJen: benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtueChung: loyalty to the stateImportant texts the Si ShuLun Yu: the analects of ConfuciusChung Yung: doctrine of the meanTa Hsuech: the greatest learningMeng Tzu: analects of philosopher Meng TzuDaoism embraced Chinese concept of yin and yang, representing balancing aspect of naturemale, female; dark, light; hot, coldNeither can exist without otherImportant for two to remain balanced for perfect harmonyOrigins of Daoist teachings attributed to philosopher named LaoziWrote book called Dao De JingLaozi worshipped by some as a godYin and YangUnlike Confucianism, which focuses on improving society, Daoism encourages people to retreat from laws of society, yield to law of natureHeart of Daoism is concept of the dao, or the wayDao is the limitless force that is part of all creationThrough the dao, all things in nature connectedFinding ones place in nature allows person to achieve harmony with universeDefinitionDaoism7

TaoismLoa Tsu (Lao Tzu, Laozi, Loatze)Lived approx. 604-531 BCLived in a feudal society with lots of warfareWrote book: Tao-te-Chine (the way of virtue)Tao (Dao)The path or the way (undefinable)Way to avoid conflict (esp feudal conflict)Power which surrounds and flows through all thingsTaoismBalance between 2 extremesno love with out hateno peace without warno male without femaleno light without darkBelievers goal: be one with the TaoGods are manifestations of the TaoTime is cyclical, not linearYin & YangYin formed breath of earthYang formed the breath of heavenPair of opposites seen through out the universeIntervention of human civilization has upset balance

TaoismChi (air, breath)Life force that has been entrusted to each personDeveloping ones virtues nurtures the ChiBeing nice to another means they will reciprocate the kindnessBelieve people are compassionate by natureFeng Shui (wind & water)Consult Chinese calendar for birth signUse I-Ching (book of changes)Creates balance between ying/yang, 5 elements and environmentSeeks to maximize balance of ChiSimple balance no clutterSharp angles bad cut the ChiSome Lasting EffectsDaoism eventually proved less influential than Confucianism in Chinese historyStill played major role in later dynastiesIdea of balance key concept in China for centuries as result of Daoist teachingDaoist philosophy led many followers to work for preservation, protection of natural environment12BuddhismGautama Siddhartha (63-483 BC)Born a prince, raised in luxuryTook 3 trips outside the palaceSaw old, sick, and deadBecomes an ascetic (abandons worldly pleasures)Search for enlightenmentMedidates under Bodhi treeGod Mara (death and desire) tries to preventFinds the middle way between deprivation and gratification4 noble truths and 8 fold pathBuddhism4 noble truths1 all life is characterized by suffering2 suffering is caused by desire/craving3 suffering can be stopped if you stop desire/craving4 stop desire/craving w/8fold path8 fold pathRight: viewsintentionsSpeechlivelihoodEffortConductconcentrationmindfulnessBuddhismImportant conceptsKarma: for every action there is a moral reactionDharma: fulfilling your social role avoids bad karmaSamsara: cycle of death and rebirthNirvana: enlightenment breaking out of samsaraBodhisattvas: people who have achieved enlightenment, stay on earth to help othersBuddhaNot a god, a man (role model)Koans illogical riddles used to gain insightLegalismHan Feizi, ShangziFounders, lived 340-230BCHan Feizi student who taught Confucianism Wrote main text of legalismShangzi traced the cause of chaos to growing populationStrong government is a solutionPhilosophyThe law is the supreme authorityHumans are inherently evil education cannot make them betterOnly punishment and reward will get people to act correctly

LegalismElements of legalismFa: the law; should be made public and rule the state (not the whims of rulers)Shi: legitimacy of rule; the power comes from the position, not the personShu: methods; laws should be strict, there is no place for benevolence, people need a strong hand to rule themConflicts with other philosophiesDislikes Confucianism way of praising the pastBelieves that people should be working rather than philosophizingPersecuted all followers of Confucianism even the princeBanned and burned Confucian textsLegalismParts of legalismEveryone has the same laws regardless of originLand was privatized and feudalism was done away withIf you refuse to denounce a criminal, you would be cut in half at the waist; if you identified a criminal you got a rewardFamilies would share the reward or punishment of an individualOnly the farmers and food producers would be free everyone should be slavesContrast

What is one difference between Confucianism and Daoism?19Answer(s): Daoismretreat from society and commune with nature; Confucianismimprove society

Activity: Take a look at the following situations. For each situation apply the philosophies you have just lok at and determine the behavior that should follow:

Activity: Comparing PhilosophiesA student knows that they are failing a class. Students from each of these doctrines know they will be in trouble when their parents find out. How do they handle this situation?) A student's friends smoke and are trying to get them to start. How do they handle this situation? A student has just found $20 in the hall. What should they do?A student's parents have just spent a lot of money on a new outfit. The student has been playing around and has gotten ink all over it. What should they tell their parents, or should they?A student really likes a new student in school, but all the other students are making fun of the new student's clothes. How should the first student act?A student knows that an older brother or sister is cheating on tests. How should the student act?A student sees an opportunity to take something they have really wanted, without being caught. How should that student act?