Ancient China

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Ancient China. 9. 4. 11. 10. 1. 6. 5. 2. 3. 7. 20. 8. 13. 12. 14. 15. 19. 16. 17. 18. China’s Geography. Read Chapter 4, Section 1 Answer the questions on the worksheet Record 3 key facts from each section in your notes Physical Settings-Different Regions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient China

Ancient China

Ancient China

1234567891011121314151617181920Chinas GeographyRead Chapter 4, Section 1Answer the questions on the worksheetRecord 3 key facts from each section in your notesPhysical Settings-Different RegionsThe rivers of ChinaChinas isolation

Due TomorrowChinas GeographyAll types of geographic featuresChina has changed a lot over the yearsThree main riversHuang or Yellow(Chinas Sorrow)Yangtze or ChangXi in the southStrong sense of culture, isolated from most outsiders

Shang Dynasty-1750 BC-1050 BCFirst people in roughly 10,000 BCXia people first settle by the Yellow river in 3,000 BCShang invade the region, start first dynasty

3 groups Government/CultureReligionLanguage and Writing

ShangCreated a Bureaucracy- a government organized into different levels and tasksEconomy Agriculture- Rice and Millet, pigs, horses, Some merchants and artisans

Shang CalendarWas created one of two ways1. Based on the sun2. Based on the movements of the moon. This was mainly used for special occasions such as birthdays and deaths. ReligionAnimism- the belief that spirits inhabit everythingGods of wind, sun, clouds, and manShangdi- A great god who controlled human destiny and the forces of natureOracle Bones- The shoulder of cattle or tortoise shells used for writing on

Fall of the ShangPeople came to the region mainly because they were attracted to the wealth.The Zhou formed Alliances with other local tribes They said that the Shang were corrupt and unfit to ruleZhou Dynasty 1050 BC- 256 BCNo centralized governmentGave territory to members of the royal family to controlFeudalism-loyalty-military service to kings for landBy 771 BC they are forced moveBegins the Late Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period of Chinese History

Established the Mandate of HeavenFour principles to the Mandate:The right to rule is granted by Heaven. There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.

Mandate of HeavenHere are some of the ways these this idea impacted ChinaIt gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. It gives the ruler supreme power. It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly if the people believe he has the 'Mandate of Heaven'. A ruler's power must be kept in check by virtue. The Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful. Floods, riots, and other disasters might be signs that the ancestor spirits were displeased with the Kings rule.Leads to a long history of government overthrow and changeLate Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period of Chinese History

Zhou Dynasty Achievements- origin of Chinese philosophy developed to deal with political and social changes (Confucianism,Daoism,Legalism)- compass invented sometime between 480 - 221 B.C.- kite - the oldest type of aircraft was invented during the 4th or 5th century- lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history- developed China's first projects involving hydraulic engineering- perfection of bronze casting- use of gold and silver inlays in objects- use of iron in developing iron casting for tools and weapons was introduced

- developed technology for irrigation, drainage, waterways, canals, dikes, and dams- used dyed yarns and materials like silk and linen- produced glass- refined the calendar- studied and recorded astronomy and astronomical events- created the first geographical maps- discovered magnetism- advancements in mathematics, including basic arithmetic, fractions, geometry, trigonometry, and calculations- use of fertilizers and pesticides

AssignmentRead Chapter 4, section 4 Fill out the worksheetRecord 3 keys facts, for both, Confucianism and DaoismDue Friday, Jan. 31ConfuciusBorn poor and vowed to end suffering and bring peace, Political Pushed education as the meaning of lifenoble deeds, not noble birth bestowed honorFamily, Elders, AncestorsCivic Duty, Virtuous leaders

Lao TzuBegan TaoismTaught about living in harmony with natureTao=the wayEmphasizes non-actionNo concern for wealth or material world

The Art of WarMost important book of military strategyWritten by Sun Tzu in the 5th century BCknow your enemies and know yourselfSun Tzu considered war as a necessary evil that must be avoided whenever possible.

"the best policy is to capture the state intact; it should be destroyed only if no other options are available.Win without fightingAvoid strengths, attack weaknessDeception and ForeknowledgeQin Dynasty 221 BC-206 BCQin Shih Huang di- Mean first emperorExpanded TerritoryVictories doubled the size of ChinaAgainst Confucius and Lao Tzus PhilosophiesAlso had feudalism

Qin DynastyQin Shi Huang di quickly put down any revolts against himOrdered all Noble families to live at the capital city, so he could watch over themMurdered 100s of Confucian scholars and ordered useless books to be burned.

Qin and LegalismA highly efficient and powerful government is the key to maintaining social orderAutocracy-Absolute power of one (emperor)Rewards and Punishments are useful to maintain social order(people are selfish and untrustworthy)Thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled by the governmentsQin DynastyForced peasants to work on roads, walls, public works against their willSet uniform standards, writing, laws, currency and measurementsThis allowed for trade to blossom

Great Wall of China14,000 miles longFrom the Yellow Sea in the East to the Gobi Desert in the WestEnemies would have to travel way to TibetMany died while working on the wall

Terracotta ArmyDied in 210 B.CCreated the Terracotta army to protect him in the afterlifeDiscovered in 1974

Fall of the QinAfter Qin Shi Huang di died in 210 B.C. his son took over, and proved to be a weak leader.Peasants rebelled just three years after the second Qin Emperor took officeOne of the leaders, a peasant from the land of Han, Marched his troops into the capital cityThe harsh Qin Dynasty gave way to the Han DynastyHAN Dynasty 206 BC-220 ADLiu Bang (Born a peasant) overthrows QinLiu Bang won and declared himself the first emperor of the Han DynastyStrong Centralized government-Civil Service ReformsHe did however, lower taxes and softened harsh punishmentsChina became a Confucian state

Silk RoadConnected China to Western EuropeTraded goods such as silk, spices, gold, and silverCaused cultural diffusionLearned about foods, animals, and fashions that were common in foreign lands