Ancient China

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Ancient China. Mhmm. Geography of China. A mix of climates, environments, and geographic features The Huang He (further north) The Yellow River – nutrients The Chang Jiang (further south) Isolation The Himalaya The jungles of SE Asia The Gobi Desert . The Shang Dynasty. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient China

China Reunified

Ancient ChinaMhmm

Geography of ChinaA mix of climates, environments, and geographic features The Huang He (further north)The Yellow River nutrients The Chang Jiang (further south)

Isolation The Himalaya The jungles of SE Asia The Gobi Desert

The Shang DynastyWell, the Xia Dynasty (mystery)But the Shang 1766 B.C.Huang He

Ruled by a court a gathering of wealthy noblesThese men were assigned parts of the kingdom to rule

Beliefs Ancestor worship Dinner exampleOracle bones Questions inscribed on bone, heated and cracked, oracles would interpret the cracks as messages

Shang Foundations Agricultural systemsPolitical systemsWriting system (pictographs) Advanced metallurgy

The Zhou Dynasty The Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic CycleJustification for rule

Two PhasesTaking control in 1100 BC, the early Zhou period was relatively peacefulCapital at Xian center of cultural development

Development of iron and chopsticks Agricultural developments = population increaseInfrastructure expanded greatly

After about 300 years, amidst conflict, the capital was moved to Luoyang

The Decline of the ZhouThe Aristocracy vs. The StateInstability

The concept of Central PowerCentralization vs. Decentralization

Shang Dynasty

Zhou Dynasty

I am here because of the Mandate of Heaven

Not true

The Zhou StateThe Zhou Dynastic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion CentralizationThe Zhou State

The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Aristocratic Dominion The Zhou Dynastic Dominion

Loyal to the EmperorDecentralizationThe Warring States PeriodDecentralization leads to things like this because of a complete lack of Central Power

403 BC 221 BCA collection of small states run by powerful nobles compete for power and wealth in China

Nominally, the Zhou were still in control of all the states but because of decentralization, they held no real power over their nobles

Philosophies of ChinaConfucianism and DaoismConflict and Chaos in society led to some serious questions People began to wonder:What is the nature of society? What are the roles of people within it?

Many philosophies were created to answer these questions Confucianism Confucius born c.550 BCBelieved in humane acts between humans through love and respect tradition should establish these ways of living

The lack of this moral tradition created the violent chaos

Restoring it would restore order to China

Confucianism and Governance Rulers should rule with fairnessIn turn, the ruled should be loyal and respectful

Education is key to the success of kingdomsThe educated should then give back through civic dutyDaoism Confucianism focused on improving society through effortDaoism focuses rather on removal from society and yielding to the laws of natureDao = the wayA force of nature By finding your place in nature you reach fulfillment Yin and yang the balancing forces

Classwork In a one page response:Compare and contrast the histories of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (so about half a page)Compare and contrast Confucianism and Daoism (then finish out that page)China ReunitedCatching UpQin Dynasty (221 B.C. 210 B.C.)Qin Shihuangdi Han Dynasty (202 B.C. 220 A.D.)Liu Pang (Peasant)

Dynastic StrugglesAfter the collapse of the Han Dynasty, civil war ravaged China for the next 300 yearsDynasties fighting each other for power

Sui Dynasty Brought the chaos to an end in 581 A.D. and established the new dynastic power It would not last long (collapsed in 618 A.D.), but succeeded in bringing some form of stability to China

The Tang Dynasty Established after the collapse of the Sui Dynasty618 907 A.D.Reforms after the chaos created stability, structure, and prosperity Expanded empire west along Silk RoadCivil Service Exam Merit System Downfall Weakened state, rebellions, and outside invaders (from the North)

The Song Dynasty Established (960 1279 A.D.)Ruled during a period of economic prosperity Constant military pressureLoss of TibetNorthern invasionsThe Song moved the capital south to Hangzhou

The Aristocracy vs. The PeopleThe Issue of Land Distribution The Aristocracy The PeopleThe Issue of Land (Sui Song) During the periods of war, aristocrats seized large tracts of landThe people thus lost land = Making more people peasants or serfs (people literally bound to the land)During the Song Dynasty however, the state worked to weaken the aristocracys hold on landThis led to an increase in the number of private land holders = Making less people peasants and/or serfsMore private land means more private money, which leads to more private investmentMore investment means more specialization, which leads to greater technology The Rise of a New Social ClassThe landed-gentry As private ownership of land and wealth increased, a new class formed the basis of economic and political eliteSimilar to the middle class of United States today

Chinese Technologies Steel (Tang)Blast Furnace Coal Quench-hardened steelCotton Gunpowder (Tang)Originally used for fireworks and communications Some military use, not on par with what Europe would do with itPrinting and paper

Long Distance TradeThe Silk RoadDeclined between the 300s and 500sCollapse of Han Dynasty and Roman EmpireRose around the 700sThe unification of Southwest Asia under the ArabsThe Rise of the Tang Dynasty in East Asia