Ancient China

Click here to load reader

download Ancient China

of 33

  • date post

    22-Feb-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    10
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

Ancient China. General Patterns of Chinese Histories. How long did a cycle last for most key dynasties? How many phases are there? What are the phases? Can this be used to predict the future?. A new dynasty comes to power. The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient China

Ancient China

Ancient ChinaGeneral Patterns of Chinese HistoriesHow long did a cycle last for most key dynasties?How many phases are there?What are the phases?Can this be used to predict the future?

TheDynasticCycleA new dynasty comes to power.Lives of common people improved;taxes reduced;farming encouraged.Problems begin(extensive wars,invasions, etc.)Taxes increase;men forced towork for army.Farming neglected.Govt. increasesspending; corruption.Droughts,floods,famines occur.Poor loserespect for govt.They join rebels& attack landlords.Rebel bands findstrong leader whounites them.Attack the emperor.Emperor isdefeated !!The emperorreforms the govt.& makes it moreefficient.Start here3Zhou Dynasty1027 - 256 BCE4Western Zhou: 1027-771 BCE

5

Eastern Zhou: 771-256 BCE6Political StructureThe Zhou did not have a strong governmentAsked local rulers and princes to rule for themLand was given to rulers in exchange for soldiers and taxesRelied heavily on local rulers, which made it hard for the Zhou to rule effectivelyZhou Contribution to Chinas HistoryExteneded Chinas borders past the Yangtze River ValleyRich agricultural land with new crops

Legitimized their rule by claiming the Mandate of HeavenTien MingThe Mandate of HeavenThe leader must lead by ability and virtue.

The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations.

The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.9Created the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize their ruleCultural ContributionBanned human sacrificePromoted a language (Mandarin Chinese)

Confucius Philosopher who wrote on Chinas political ethics

Qin Dynasty

12Qin [Chin] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E. Qin Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E)Established Chinas first empire Legalist rule Bureaucratic administrationCentralized control (control from one place)Military expansionBook burnings targetedConfucianistsBuried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall

13Short-lived but very significant.Book burnings (including Confucius!)Millions of peasants were forced to build the Great Wall along the northern border.

China, from Qin, developed as the name outsiders used to refer to China. But the Chinese still refer to themselves as Han people. Shi HuangdiRuled by appointing his followers to rule lands, not having alliances with local rulersCarefully selected his officialsStandardized coins, weights and measurementsWas brutal and merciless, so when he died, revolts happened and his empire was overthrownShi Huangdis Terra Cotta ArmySupposed to guard him in the afterlife

15Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Army

16Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Soldiers& Cavalrymen

17Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Cavalry

18Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Individual Soldiers

19Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.The Details of an Individual Soldier

20Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Individual Tombs

21Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.The Great Wall with Towers

22How effective do you think this kind of fortification would have been in pre-modern times? The Eastern terminus of the Great Wall, Shanhai Pass

23

24Han DynastyHan Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.Paper invented [105 B.C.E.]

Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many, trade with the rest of the world (Romans)Buddhism introduced into ChinaExpanded into Central Asia

26The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

Han Roman Empire Connection

27

Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113 BCE) His jade suit has 2498 pieces!28Emperor Wudi, 141-87 B.C.E.Started public schools.

Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam.

Revival of Chinese landscape painting.

29The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

Ruling SystemCivil Service SystemTo work in the government, you had to pass a test on Chinese literature, lawMost people who passed were upper classOfficials were trained in Chinese law and philosophy, so they could help keep an Emperor in controlHan Artifacts

Imperial Seal

Han Ceramic House

31Ceramics, Later Han Period

32Trade Routes of the Ancient World

33