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Transcript of Ancient China
Ancient ChinaCHAPTER 5Geography of Chinas River ValleysWhen you think of Dragons.What comes to mind?
Chinese DragonsDragons were a respected spiritBrought the life giving rains (China had Dragon rain ceremonies)Chinas Explanation of rivers?The Geography of ChinaContrasting Climate and LandformsNorth China Plain- Built by soil deposits from the Huang RiverShort Summer and rain season due to the monsoonsClimate is very dry most of the yearContrasting ClimatesSouthern climate is the direct opposite of the North (duh)Very warm and damp
Effects of CivilizationGeographic Barriers?MountainsRiversWhat did these barriers do?/ Cause
Flooding RiversChinas flooding rivers did what for the people?Based off of everything we have learned this year, where do you believe the first Chinese villages were established?Yellow RiverThe Huang River carries deposits of loessLoess- yellow-brown soilWhen the river floods it leaves this yellow brown silt all over the northern regionThats why the northern region can still farm even though it is dryMillet is grown here (staple of Chinese diet)Chinas SorrowThe Huang (Yellow) River was called Chinas SorrowWhy?
Flood ControlDikes- walls to control the floodsMajor issue as a result?Early Civilization in ChinaIt is unknown when the first nomadic groups began settling and farming in the region, but it was believed to be as early as 5000 B.C.Shang Dynasty1st Major Civilization in ChinaArose around 1760 B.C.Created the first Chinese writing system the writing system was culturally universal, multiple different Chinese groups could use the writing systemBuilt Chinas first citiesGreat Bronze workersRuled for about 600 years
Zhou DynastyBordered the ShangHad times of War and Peace with the ShangConquered the Shang in 1122 BCRuled for 1000 years (Western Zhou/Eastern Zhou)The end of the Zhou was marked by a perior of time called the Warring StatesThis period lasted only a small time before the Qin took over
Mandate of HeavenThe idea is that a King or Ruler gets his power by fate, God has determined that person will be in control.Same goes for the father leading his family.The Importance of FamilyFamily is the center of Chinese life, more important than the individual and the nation.
Traditional FamiliesCould contain up to 5 generationsExtended family- closely related group of people living in the same houseWealthy families may live in one big houseMajority of the people were poor and lived in one room cottages positioned close to one and otherFamily AuthorityCenter authority was the eldest maleAfter the oldest man died, land was divided up between his sons and they started their own families at that point.
Womens RolesWomen were considered lower status than menWomen were bound by the 3 obedience's1- obey father in youth2- obey husband in marriage3- obey their sons if widowed
Family NamesChinese tradition is that the family name is passed on to each child then a personal name is given also.When spoken, the family name comes first.Example instead of Seth Whiting, I would be Whiting Seth. What would your name be?Confucius and His TeachingsSection 2
The Life of ConfuciusConfucius- Chinese teacher and philosopherName- Kong Fu Zi (Master Kong) one of the earliest Chinese thinkers (Confucius is the Latin translation)Born to a Noble (yet poor) family in the North China Plain (NCP)Self taught (became a teacher)Teaching PioneerFirst recognized paid teacherGoal was to find a leader to follow his teachingsHe never didBelieved his life to be a failureTeaching lasted for centuriesThe Teachings of ConfuciusHis goal was to pass on forgotten teachings of wise menConfucianism- A system of values and beliefs, a philosophy, based on Confuciuss ideas
Bringing Order to SocietyConfucius believed that if people could be trained to behave properly, and orderly successful society would followToo many of Chinas leaders were more worried about displaying power than intellegence Respecting OthersPeople should know their place, and show respect to those above and below themThe five human relationships:Ruler and RuledFather and SonHusband and WifeOlder Brother and Younger BrotherFriend and FriendThe Golden RuleVery similar to Jewish and Christian belief that:Do not do to others what you would not want done to yourselfReligious TraditionsConfucianism is a philosophy but was followed much like a religion, often along side another original religionAncient China was home to many beliefsChinese people believed that you should live life in harmony and happinessTaoism- living in harmony with the earth (based off of the writings of Laozi)Influence of ConfucianismConfucian ideas became the basis for Chinese government civil serviceCivil Service- group of people who carry out the work of the governmentMerit System- Govt. positions were given based on how well you did your job and if you passed the examsRising to high Positions- In order to take the exam you had to read and write, this left poor people out of govt. office because most lacked the ability to read and writeTHE WARRING KINGDOMS UNITE
SHI HUANGDIThe first Emperor of China6000 piece terracotta army
SHI HUANGDIThe emperor had this army created to protect his tomb and help him gain control in the afterlife.He had grand plans for real life as well, he said his dynasty would last for 10,000 generationsTHE QIN DYNASTY
QIN DYNASTYLasted only 2 generationsShi Huangdi was the first emperorHe conquered and united all the warring statesFirst task was to enforce strong rule and protect his peopleHe ordered the construction of the great wall of ChinaGREAT WALL
GREAT WALL FACTSThe Great wall is one continuous structure built by the QIN Dynasty? False- it was started by the Qin and added to by many other dynasties. The wall is built in segments some attached others detached.Death Toll- 1,000,000. Referred to as the longest cemetery in the world!Length of the Defense walls- 31,070 milesCircumference of earth- 24,854 milesMore Great Wall FactsThe wheelbarrow was invented and used extensively to build the great wall 25ft tall and up to 30 ft wide.
Organizing the GovernmentTo stop rebelions, Huangdi had farmers build miles of road so his armies could quickly get to any uprising and stop it.Huangdi killed any official who opposed himDivided China into districts run by his trusted officialsUnifying Economy & CultureHuangdi declared that one currency would be usedCurrency- type of moneyWhy would he want one currency for all of China?Also called for:common weights and measuresimproved writing systemlaw codeRestricting FreedomsOutlawed philosopher who was not QINConfucius's teachings were bannedQin taught legalism, the Idea that you are punished for bad behavior and rewarded for good behaviorPeople should work to serve the govt. and the emperorHuangdi burnt all books except those containing medical, technical, or farming information.The people who protested were killedThe End of the QinHuangdi died in 210 B.C.It was followed by 4 years of chaos 9 (both his sons were killed)His grandson takes over but cannot maintain controlRebellions broke out and the dynasty fellThe 10,000 generation dynasty only lasted 15 years