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Transcript of Ancient China
Ancient China1. GeographyTwo major riversChang Jiang aka YangziHuang He aka Yellow RiverCivilizations in China started in the river valleys of these two riversCropsSouthThe environment was suitable for riceNorthSuitable for wheat and millet
c. IsolatedMuch of China is covered with mountains, hills and desertHelped protect China from invasion
Shang and Zhou DynastiesUse textbook pages 109 112 to take notes on the development and achievements of Chinas earliest dynasties.
Shang DynastyZhou DynastyShang DynastyZhou DynastyStrong monarchyLarge armyGovernors ruled distant partsDeveloped writingAdvances in bronze workingBuilt huge structureAstronomers created a precise calendar based on moon cyclesCreated one of the world's first systems of moneyUsed oracle bones to ask ancestors for advice
Ruled by Mandate of HeavenUsed ironPopulation grewNew farming techniquesCities grewBuilt roads and canalsIntroduced coins and use of chopsticks
2. Major PhilosophiesConcept of the Mandate of HeavenPolitical philosophyUsed to explain the fall of one dynasty and the rise of another Stated that the gods would support a just ruler, but they would not allow anyone corrupt to hold powerb. ConfucianismBased on the teachings of a man named Kongfuzi or ConfuciusConfuciusBelieved that people should treat one another humanelyBelieved tat love and respect had disappeared and this was what was responsible for violence in a societyBelieved that if respect for tradition was restored, society would again be stable and orderlyiii. The AnalectsA book written by ConfuciusStates that rulers should treat their subjects fairlySubjects should in return reward their ruler with respect and loyaltyPeople need to respect the members of the familyIt is the duty of all educated people to devote themselves to public servicec. DaoismEncourages people to retreat from the laws of society and yield to the laws of natureConcept of the Dao or the wayDao is the limitless force that is part of all creation
iii. Embraces the concept of yin and yangRepresents the balancing aspect of natureNeither can exist without the otherWhen in balance represents perfect harmony
3. BuddhismOriginsOriginated in IndiaFounder, is a man by the name of Siddhartha Gautama
b. TeachingsFour Noble TruthsSuffering is a part of human lifeNo one can escape from suffering while aliveSuffering comes from peoples desires for pleasure and material goodsOvercoming these desires during life eventually brings suffering to an endDesires can be overcome by following the Eightfold Pathii. The Eightfold PathRight ViewAccepting the reality of the Four Noble TruthsRight AttitudeStriving for moderation in all thingsRight SpeechAvoiding lies, boasts and hurtful wordsRight ActionTreating others fairly5. Right livelihoodAvoiding jobs that could bring harm to others6. Right effortConstantly trying to improve oneself7. Right mindfulnessRemaining aware of the world around you8. Right ConcentrationIgnoring temptation and discomfort while meditatingiii. NirvanaA state of perfect peace in which the soul would be free from sufferingCan be attained by following the Eightfold PathIf nirvana is not achieved you will be reborn and go through the cycles of suffering againiv. Middle WayAnother way of expressing The Eightfold PathLive in moderation, avoid extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvanac. 3 DivisionsTheravada (The Way of the Elders)Oldest of the Buddhist traditionsBased on the Pali CanonOldest of the Buddhist WritingsBest way to attain nirvana is to become a monk or nun and spend all of ones time in meditationii. MahayanaTaught that people can help each other find enlightenmentIncorporated text written after the Buddhas lifetimeBodhisattvasPeople who have found enlightenment but have not passed yetHelp others find enlightenmentiii. Tibetan BuddhismIncorporates some of the many teachings with MahayanaBelieve you can use special techniques to harness spiritual energy and achieve nirvana in a single lifetimeFebruary 4, 2014In America, it is often said that you can pull yourself up by the bootstraps, meaning if you work hard, you can overcome challenges and become very successful.
Do you think this is true? How often do you think people born in the lower classes move up to the upper classes? Do you think individuals should be able to move in society, despite their familys status? Explain. Ancient India and Hinduism1. Geographya. Subcontinent large landmass that is part of a continenti. Three major geographic zones1. Himalaya and Hindu Kush mountain systems2. Deccan Plateau3. Northern Plainsa. Where Indian society first developed
b. Riversi. Indus Riverii. Gangesc. Monsoons seasonal winds that bring rain during the summeri. First civilizations depended on monsoons to bring water for crops2. Indus Valley Civilizationa. Cities and Settlements1. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro ("mound of the dead")2. Well planned and carefully laid outa. Streets run in grid patternb. Community wellsc. Public drainage system3. Citadel walled, elevated fortress that enclosed buildings such as granaries, warehouses, and meeting halls.
Mohenjo Darob. Economyi. Focused on agriculture and tradeii. City dwellers specialized in crafts such as pottery, metal-work, and jewelryc. Societyi. Writing System1. unable to readii. Single authority, rather than many city- states1. Common tool designs2. Set of standard weights d. Declinei. Thrived from 2500 to 2000 BCEii. Mohenjo Daro abandoned 1. Reasons unknown3. The Vedic PeriodSacred writing called the Vedasi. Includes details about Aryan history and society1. Aryans took control of India sometime after 2000 BCE
b. Vedic Societyi. Groups of small villages banded together under regional leaders called rajas1. Raja was a war leader2. Protected the people in exchange for food and moneyc. Social Structurei. According to Rigveda, society divided into four social classes called varnas1. Brahminsa. highest ranking; smallest group; priests and teachers2. Kshatriyasa. Warriors and rulers3. Vaisyasa. Traders, farmers, herders, etc4. Sudrasa. Servants
ii. Over centuries, varnas were divided into hundreds of smaller divisions called castes1. Caste determines job and who you can marry2. Untouchables were beneath caste system
d. Vedic Religioni. People pray to many aspects of single eternal spritii. Worship1. Fire sacrifices2. Offer food and drink3. Rituals grew more complex over timea. Gave Brahmin more power4. Basic Teachings of HinduismBrahmani. Eternal being that created and preserves the worldii. Everything in the world is an aspect of Brahmaniii. Human mind cannot understand Brahmaniv. Everybody has an atman, or soul, that is a part of Brahman
v. Brahman manifests in four different devas1. Brahma, the Creator2. Vishnu, the Preserver3. Siva, the Destroyer
Basic Hindu BeliefsFold your paper in quartersUse pages 99 100 to identify and describe the four basic Hindu beliefsReincarnationAfter death, the atman will be released from the body and later reborn in anotherKarmaSum effect of a persons deeds and actions during lifeNature of a persons new life will be shaped by karmMokshaEscape from the cycle of rebirth (ultimate goal of human existence)Atman leaves the world and reunites with BrahmanDharmaSet of spiritual duties and obligationsMust be fulfilled in order to achieve mokshaVaries based on class and station in life5. Sacred Texts and PracticesThe Vedasi. Sacred hymns of praiseii. Contains eternal knowledge revealed to humans by Brahmanb. Later writings inspired by Vedasi. Upanishads1. Deals with nature of the world and the meaning of life
c. Sacred Epicsi. Ramayana1. Model for Hindu couplesii. Mahabharata1. War between 2 families2. Teaches about dharma and proper behavior3. Includes Bhagavad Gita, most sacred Hindu texta. Diaglogue between Arjuna and Krisha (Vishnu in human form)d. Religious Practicesi. Worship varies1. Anywhere2. Priests may recite portions of Vedas3. May offer food, drink, gifts to deva4. Prayers, meditation, reflectiona. Yoga series of integrated physical and mental exercisesiii. Pilgrimage1. Religious journey to a holy location, the Ganges River6. JainismBelieved Hindus put too much emphasis on ritualJains believe people can achieve moksha by giving up all worldly things and carefully controlling actionsAhimsai. NonviolenceTruthfulnessEliminate greed, anger, prejudice, gossip
Using p. 102, create a Venn Diagram on Jainism and HinduismJainism vs. HinduismJudaismBuddhismHindu-ismConfucian-ismChristian-ityIslam# of followers world wideKey conceptsFounderName of deitySacred text / Holy BookReligious symbolJeopardy!Groups of 4Resources:1 whiteboard, 1 marker, 1 eraser1 textbook2 notebooksFirst team to hold up the correct answer (must be legible) gets the pointSwitch writers every turn!