Ancient China

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Ancient China. China. Natural Barriers: East – Yellow Sea & Pacific Ocean West – Taklimakan Desert & Plateau of Tibet Southwest – Himalayan Mountains North – Gobi Desert & Mongolian Plateau Major Rivers: Huang He (Yellow) ‘Cradle of Chinese Civilization’ Location of 1 st Civilization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Ancient China

  • ChinaNatural Barriers:East Yellow Sea & Pacific OceanWest Taklimakan Desert & Plateau of TibetSouthwest Himalayan MountainsNorth Gobi Desert & Mongolian PlateauMajor Rivers:Huang He (Yellow)Cradle of Chinese CivilizationLocation of 1st CivilizationChinas SorrowFrequent devastating floods caused by large amounts of loess deposited on the river floorloess: fertile deposit of windblown siltYangtze (Chang Jiang)Longest river in ChinaNorth China Plain:Plain between Huang He & YangtzeMost populated & fertile region of ChinaMiddle Kingdom:Derived from belief they were the center of civilizationOriginated with the Zhou Dynasty

  • Ancient Chinese Dynastic PeriodsXia Dynasty (2070 1600 BCE)1st Chinese DynastyShang Dynasty (1600 1046 BCE)1st Chinese dynasty to leave written recordsZhou Dynasty (1045 256 BCE)Established feudalism Warring States Period (475 221 BCE)Seven KingdomsQin Dynasty (221 206 BCE)Qin Shi Huang 1st Emperor of China

    Key characteristics of Chinese civilization:Advanced Cities Specialized WorkersComplex Institutions Record KeepingAdvanced Technology

  • Xia Dynasty2070 1600 BCE

    Founded by Yu the GreatGiven the thrown by ShunYu passed power to his son QiEstablishing dynastic rule of ChinaFlood-control and irrigation increased agricultural productionFood surplus allowed cities to grow

  • Shang Dynasty1600 1046 BCE

    Founded by Cheng TangOverthrew King Jie of the Xia DynastyBattle of MingtiaoCapital was moved six timesFinal/Largest: Yin Xu (Anyang)North of Huang HeShang Civilization:Basis:AgricultureKey Aspects:Hunting, Animal Husbandry, Bronze Production, War & Human SacrificeDecline:Defeated by the Zhou at the Battle of MuyeShang Zhou committed suicide after the defeat

  • Shang Political & Social StructureKing was supreme rulerHead Military CommanderHigh Priest of Society

    Aristocracy:Land owning warrior-nobles ruledAristocracy: rule by elite fewShang kings divided the territory among generalsPeasants tilled the land for the aristocrats

    Family:Central to Chinese SocietyChief loyalty was to ones familyOlder males controlled property and decisions (Patriarchal)Women were treated as inferiorsMothers would eventually have to obey their own sonsGirls had marriages arranged between 13 & 16

  • Zhou Dynasty1045 256 BCELongest dynasty in Chinese historyKing Wu1st king of Zhou Dynastyclaimed the Shang rulers lost support of the gods

    Established Feudal Rule:Feudalism:Nobles granted use of lands that belong to the king in exchange for owing loyalty and military service to the king Control of various regions was given to family members and trusted noblesTerritory stretched further West, North and South to the YangtzeAs nobles grew in power they became less dependent on the king

  • Mandate of HeavenNotion that the ruler governed by divine authorityUsed to justify authority and rule (Duke of Zhou)Heaven (Tian) chose who would ruleDao (The Way):Kings were responsible to be rule by the dao and keep the gods happy or lose the Mandate of HeavenResulting in disasters, bad harvests or rebellion

    Mandate of Heaven was used to explain the dynastic cycle Rise, decline and replacement of different dynasties

  • Dynastic Cycle

  • Zhou SocietyTrade:Agricultural surplus led to an increase in tradeSilk: Most important trade item

    Transportation:Roads and canals were constructedLinking growing cities

    Iron:Development of the blast furnace facilitated productionWeapons and agricultural toolsStronger than bronze weapons/tools

    Irrigation/Water Projects:Control of river flow better watered the cropsLess reliance on rain

    Coined Money:Introduced metal coins to Chinese Civilization (possibly 1st in the World)Improved trade

  • Zhou DeclineWarring States Period:Feudal lords began grow in power and fight neighborsAnnexing and consolidating smaller states around themSeven major states emergedRulers changed from Dukes to Kings of their territoryQin, Chu, Qi, Yan, Han, Wei & ZhaoPolitical Developments:Complex bureaucracies, centralized governments & clear legal systems

    Warfare:Infantry (peasant foot soldiers) and cavalry became more prevalentReplacing chariotsNew weapons:Iron battle-axes and swordsCrossbowSun Tzus The Art of War:Oldest and most influential military guide