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Transcript of Ancient China
Ancient ChinaUnit 4
The Environment - ChinaThe Land4th Largest Country in the world. (area)12% of the land is suitable for farming despite the large size.
Bodies of WaterThe Huang He (Yellow) River Yellow soilYangtze RiverMountainsHimalaya Mountains
The ClimateVaries from region to region.
The Huang (Yellow) River
CHINA Climate ControlNORTH CHINA PLAIN ~ warm hot summers/cold winters. Chief crops are wheat and millet. SOUTH CHINA PLAIN ~ richer in farming and more industrialized. They grow rice, cotton, tea, veggies and more.MANCHURIA ~ (North East) very cold climate makes it pretty unpopulated. MONGOLIA ~ (The Far North Region) encompassed by the Gobi desert, its climate is very hot in the summer and cold in the winter.
The Yangtze River serves as China's official dividing line between north and south What is the only continent without a desert?Europe
Dynasty in ChinaThe Xia over four thousand years ago?The Shang (1750 to 1122 B.C.) (628y)The Zhou (1122 to 256 B.C.) (866y)The Qin (221 to 206 B.C.) (15y)The Han Dynasty (206 B.C. to 220 A.D.)The Sui Dynasty (589 to 618)
Xia DynastyLegend says earliest Chinese ruled by Xia dynastyLittle written, archaeological evidence Xia dynasty existedMost historians date beginning of Chinese civilization to rise of Shang dynasty
1st civilization in China to write things down. They used pictographs, or pictures, to represent objects. They also used ideographs to represent ideas such as beauty, joy, and justice. They are also responsible for developing an accurate calendar.Finally, they are also responsible for improving the art of bronze-making.
ReligionVeneration of ancestors - ancestor worship. Belief was spirits of family ancestors could bring good or evil fortune to the living members of the family. Spirits were worshipped to persuade divine forces to do good.
Sought advice through use of oracle bonesAs part of worship, Shang asked ancestors for advice
Hot piece of metal applied to oracle bone resulting in cracks on bones surfaceTrained priests interpreted meaning of cracks to learn answerOracle Bones
The Shang DynastyFu Haoqueen and military general who led military campaigns
Excavating Fu Hao's tomb
The Zhou DynastyThe Zhou overthrow the Shang DynastyLasts for nearly 900 yearsThe use of iron c. 550 B.C. assisted farming methods (plow). The plow increased size of harvest, created food surpluses; cities also grew and thus, population grew under ZhouRoads, canals allowed better transportation, communicationIntroduced coins, use of chopsticks, and silkNew ideas in government emerge Next Page
The Zhou Dynasty ContinuedThe Mandate of HeavenMandate means = order, permission, authorizationThe Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles:The right to rule is granted by Heaven. There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty. Positive and Negative sides Mandate of Heaven for a DynastyIt gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. It gives the ruler supreme power. It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly because everyone believes he has the Mandate of Heaven. The rulers power must be kept in check by virtue. It justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful.
Dynastic CyclePeriod of wise and efficient rulersLeaders begin to decline intellectually and morallyCentral government begins to collapseRebellion or invasion take place creating a new dynasty.The Dynastic cycle lasts until 1912 A.D. (Yes, really!)
The Zhou Dynasty ContinuedFamily LifeLoyalty to the family was vital to the Chinese people.Filial PietyAll members of the family had to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family.The Five RelationshipsSon was subordinate to the fatherWife was to husbandYounger brother to older brotherAll were to the kingFriend to friend
ConfuciusConfucius is considered by the Chinese as the first teacher.Interest was political and ethical, not spiritualBelief was: The universe was made in such a way that, if humans would act in harmony with its purposes, their own affairs would prosper.To be good, you had to behave according with the Tao (Way) Two Concepts of Tao- Duty and HumanityHumanityBelief in the concept:Treat others the way you want to be treated orDont do something to others that you would not want done to yourselfDutyPeople had to follow the Five Relationships RuleBelief in 100% Work EthicIf everyone does their duty to the fullest, then society will prosper. If notFinding ones place in nature allows person to achieve harmony with universe
WisdomCultivate Virtue in your own person, And it becomes a genuine part of you. Cultivate it in the family, And it will abide. Cultivate it in the community, And it will live and grow. Cultivate it in the state, And it will flourish abundantly. Cultivate it in the world, And it will become universal.
Knowledge is knowing a tomato is a fruit
Wisdom is not putting it in a fruit salad.
ConfuciusIf there is righteousness in the heart, there will be beauty in the character. If there is beauty in the character, there will be harmony in the home. If there be harmony in the home, there will be order in the nation. If there be order in the nation, there will be peace in the world.
TaoismThe Tao encompasses all opposite and complementary forces, which are collectively referred to as yin and yang. As represented in the familiar symbol (seen above)Yin is associated with darknessYang is associated with lightNeither can exist without otherImportant for two to remain balanced for perfect harmonyThe best way to act in harmony with the universal order is to act spontaneously and let nature take its course by not interfering with itFounderLao TzuTextTao Te Ching (The Way of the Tao)
Taoism wrap upTaoists believe it's very important to understand The Way Things Are. This does not mean that there are not things we need to change about ourselves, but it's important to recognize and trust our own Inner Nature, and discover who we are. In the story of "The Ugly Duckling", when does the duckling stop feeling ugly? When he discovers he's a Swan. When he recognizes who he really is, a beautiful swan, he finds his Way to happiness. Taoism eventually proved less influential than Confucianism in Chinese history
The Qin DynastyThe End of the Dynastic Cycle for the Zhou DynastyCivil War will break out (403 B.C.)Becomes known as the Period of Warring StatesWhat happens? And the winner of the warring states isQin Shi Huangdi- The first Emperor of China The Qin Dynasty will emerge to take control
Huang di = King of the godsThe August most revered god.
The Qin DynastyAchievementsOrdered the construction of the Great Wall of ChinaDivided the country into military districts, each ruled by an appointed officialStandardized coinageStandardized weightsStandardized measurementsRepaired roads and canalsLegalism is the practiced philosophyCensorateOther itemsConducted first book burning due to legalism
Belief that human beings are innately evil.People can only be brought to follow the correct path by harsh laws and stiff punishments because people by nature were not capable of being good without incentive. (Incentive is they didnt want to be punished!)Legalists obviously believe in strong authoritarian rule with strict rules
Beijing Great Wall -- In 221 BC, the Emperor Qin absorbed the other six states and set up the first unified kingdom in Chinese history. In order to strengthen his newly born authority and defend the Huns in the north, he ordered connecting the walls once built by the other states as well as adding some sections of his own. The Long Wall
Qin Shi Huangdis Tomb
Han DynastyLiu Bang leads peasant revoltConfucianism is restored, removing Legalism.Buddhism is brought from India to ChinaPaper is invented by Tsai Lun
Gunpowder is inventedWhile attempting to create medicine (and an elixir for immortality) alchemists discover gunpowderThough many people wrote about the inflammable mixtures during 300-650 AD, some historians claim that the invention of gunpowder was dated at 850 AD. Yang Di orders the construction of the Grand Canal linking the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers.
The Worlds Oldest NoodlesScientists found the ancient noodles preserved in an overturned, sealed bowl at an archaeological site near the Yellow River in northwestern China.