Ancient china

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  • 1.ANCIENT CHINA1750 BCE 170 CE

2. GEOGRAPHYArchaeologists pinpointtwo areas as thebeginnings of Chinesecivilization: the YellowRiver and the YangtzeRiver. The areabetween these riversemerged as one of thegreatest food-producing areas of theancient world. Only 10% of China is suitable for farming, as most of the land is mountains and deserts. China is surroundedThe Xia (Syah) dynasty by mountains and oceans that keep the people of Chinawas founded over 4000isolated from other people. Like Egypt, this led to longyears ago in this area periods of peace and prosperity.and was replaced bythe Shang dynasty in There were areas in conflict, however especially theabout 1750 BCE.northern border with Mongolia, where battles over land and territory occurred. 3. SHANG DYNASTY The Shang Dynasty ruled from approximately 1750 BCE until 1122 BCE. During the Shang Dynasty, farmers were ruled by the aristocracy (upper class) whose main concern was war. Power and wealth was passed down through families from one generation to another. Archaeologists have found evidence the Shang Dynasty may have had as many as five different capital cities before settling on Anyang, just north of the Yellow River. The Shang King ruled from Anyang. The country was divided into territories governed by aristocratic warlords who defended their territories. The king controlled large armies that defended the nation. 4. SHANG DYNASTY RELIGION & CULTURE The early Chinese had a strong belief in lifeafter death. They conducted human sacrifices inan effort to win the favor of the gods. Eventuallythis belief in the afterlife would develop into theveneration (worship) of ancestors. The Shang had a mastery of bronze casting.With bronze they made pots, vases, urns,weapons, and other objects. Many bronzeobjects have been found in tombs under urbancenters throughout Shang China. 5. DYNASTY CYCLE IN CHINA The Zhou Dynasty overthrew the Shang and set up their own dynasty in 1027 BCE. The Zhou justified their takeover by claiming they had a Mandate of Heaven, or a divine right to rule. The Mandate of Heaven was used to explain the Dynastic Cycl. A dynasty would remain in power only as long as it was providing good government. When a dynasty went into decline and abused its power, it was said to lose the Mandate of Heaven. A new leader would emerge and claim the Mandate and establish a new dynasty. Then the dynastic cycle would begin again. 6. ZHOU DYNASTY1122 BCE 256 BCE The Zhou dynasty was the longest-lasting in Chinese history. The Zhou rulers continued the political system of the Shang dynasty, with a king at the top and a government bureaucracy to help the king rule. Kings who got their power through the Mandate of Heaven were expected to rule according to the proper way, called the Dao. It was the kings duty to keep the gods pleased in order to protect the people. The idea of the Dao in ruling meant that the Chinese had the right to revolt any king who was corrupt or abused his power. The Zhou Dynasty declined when the city-states became stronger and challenged the ruler with civil war. The rulers had declined morally and intellectually, and in 403 BCE civil war broke out, beginning a period known as The Period of the Warring States. In 221 BCE, the Qin (Chin) took control of China and create a new dynasty. 7. LIFE IN THE ZHOU DYNASTY Under the Zhou, the Chinese discovered how to makesilk from the cocoons of silkworms. Silk would becomeChinas most valuable export, eventually linking them withmost of the world through trade. Chinese artisans alsoexcelled in book making. The first books were made bybinding together long, thin strips of wood or bamboo.Chinese scholars would then carefully paint characters onwith brush and ink. Early book , Book of Songs, whichincludes a poetry describing a variety of Chinese life. 8. LIFE IN THE ZHOU DYNASTY Economic & Technological Life during the Zhou DynastyGrowth The Aristocracy owned the land 6th-3rd centuries BCE were a timeand the peasants worked land of growth. Irrigation controlled owned by the lord. Towns had water, iron plowshares increased merchants who were owned food, Silk was traded. by the lord like slaves. TheChinese traded along the SilkRoad. The Chinese Written Language Chinese is a primarily pictographic language, which The Family in Ancient China means picture symbols are used The family was the basic to represent an idea. When 2 oreconomic and social unit. Filial more pictographs are used to Piety: son or daughter gives up represent an idea it is called personal needs to serve male ideographic writing. Most otherfamily head. Farming required languages started using symbolsthe entire family, and sons that represented phonetics, or inherited from their fathers. Men letter sounds. China has never were the head of the family.. completely abandoned using Women were subordinates, but pictures in their writinggg. in the royal family had someinfluence. 9. PHILOSOPHY/RELIGION IN EARLY CHINA Confucianism Daoism Legalism Confucius was a real man Based on the Unlike Confucianismthat wanted to be apolitical advisor. He is teachings of Laoziof Dao, thiscalled Master Kung, thethe Old Master, who philosophy professedfirst teacher. His thoughtslived at the same that humans werewere recorded in the time as Confucius.evil and we couldAnalects. His interest inphilosophy was political The Way of the Daoonly be on theand ethical, but not are the writings of correct path if givenspiritual. He felt that aDaoism. Daoismharsh laws withperson should behave indoes not care about harsh punishments.the way of the Dao. Hebelieved governmentthe concerns of the This was a systemshould be run by superiorUniverse (where weof impersonal come from), but Rulers needed to Important Concepts: looks at how we create order because should act while we people were not Duty: all people had to set are here. To follow capable of being aside their needs for the the will of Heaven is good. A fear of family/society. Work hard and improve life on do nothing.punishment would Humanity: Compassion andPeople should act cause people to empathy for others: measurespontaneously and serve the ruler. the feelings of others by oneslet nature take its own. course.Simply put, it seems that Confuciuswas more interested in how to getwhat one wants out of life, and how tobehave in society. In contrast toConfucius, Lao Tzu (Laozi) was moreinterested in being in harmony withthe world around him.Yang Shang, founder of legalism 10. CHINESE EMPIRES: QIN DYNASTY221 BCE 170 CE Qin Dynasty: 221-206 BCE Legalism was adopted by the Qin leaders. The government was centralized with three key parts: Civil Bureaucracy Military Censorate (Inspectors who kept tabs on the civil workers) China was divided into provinces and counties. Members of the CivilBureaucracy were appointed, with censors watching the civil servants. Qin had a strong foreign policy and extended the Chinese border to theSouth The Great Wall: the Xiongnu began The Fall of theinvading from the north, near the Gobi Qin Dynasty: After Desert. Qin Shihuangdi (the Chinese the first ruler, the ruler) began building the Great Wall to dynasty wasprotect China. The Wall of TenOne of the most unusual Thousand Li a li = 1/3 of a mile.discoveries from the Qin overthrown,period is the Terra-cottafollowed by civilArmy. Archaeologists war.believe the army wascreated to accompany theQin emperor in death. 11. MAP OF THE QIN DYNASTY 12. CHINESE EMPIRES: THE HAN DYNASTY202 BCE 220 CE Expansion of the Empire:Political Structure: TheStretched to northernHan dynasty got rid ofVietnamLegalism and harsh politicalpolicies, but kept division ofcentral government into 3ministries: military, civil andcensorate. During the HanDynasty, Civil servants hadto pass an exam to work forthe government.Society in the Han Empire:The Han dynasty was a time ofThe expansion of the population caused aprosperity throughout China.reduction in the amount of land owned by freeThere was onepeasants they did not have enough land togroup, however, who suffered:provide their families with food and were oftenfree peasants. Their taxes wereforced to sell their land to wealthy nobles, makinglow, but they were expected tothem tenant farmers on the land.provide military service andforced labor up to one month ayear. 13. HAN DYNASTY Technology: New technologies helped the Handynasty prosper. The Chinesedeveloped textile manufacturing(making cloth), water mills, andship rudders and aft rigging,making it easier to sail and trade.Trade expanded and Chinaincreased its wealth. The most notable technology wasthe invention of paper during the Silk ManufacturingHan dynasty. Water mills were used for grinding grain and casting ironShip rudders (at bottomleft) helped steer ships. 14. MAP OF THE HAN DYNASTY 15. FALL OF THE HAN DYNASTY 220 CE The Han empire declined over a long period oftime. Their rulers became corrupt and worriedmore about their royal court than the Chinesepeople. The landed aristocracy noble families began to replace the central government asthe force of power in China. By 170 CE, warsand uprisings brought about the collapse of theHan dynasty. In 190, rebels sacked the Hancapital. China was again plunged into civil warand the next great dynasty would not arise for400 years.