Anatomy unit 4 digestive and excretory systems excretory notes

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  • 1.Unit 5 Notes: The Urinary/Excretory System

2. (1) Main Organs Kidneys Ureters Bladder Urethra 3. (2) Functions Filter blood Remove impurities, toxins, excess nutrients Reabsorb needed water + nutrients 4. (3) Kidney Functions Excretion of nitrogenous wastes Maintain water concentration of blood Maintain electrolyte concentration of blood Regulate blood pH (H ion levels) 5. (4) Ureter, Bladder & Urethra Function Ureters = Tubes which carry filtered liquid waste towards the bladder. Bladder = Storage tank for filtered liquid waste. Urethra = Tube which allows filtered liquid waste to exit body. 6. (5) Kidneys & Blood Supply Kidneys use 20% of bodys blood Renal Artery = Entering oxygenated blood Renal Vein = Exiting deox. Blood All blood is filtered through nephrons. 7. (6) Nephrons 2 Main Structures: Glomerulus Bundle of capillaries w/ blood to be filtered. Renal Tubule Tubes following capillaries, which collect filtered contents Bowmans Capsule = Portion of tubule where initial filtration and absorption occurs 8. (7) Urine Formation Steps 1- Filtration: Water + Small Solutes are forced through capillary walls into Bowmans Capsule. 2- Reabsorption: Water, Glucose, Amino Acids & Ions that were filtered out are actively transported back into capillaries and blood. 3- Secretion: H ions, K ions, urea, and drugs/toxins are forced through capillary walls into renal tubule. 9. (8) Regulating Drops in Blood Pressure Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from Pituitary: Increases water reabsorption from renal tubule. Aldosterone from Kidney: Increases water retention in blood by reabsorbing more sodium from renal tubule. Angiotensin II from Blood: Causes vasoconstriction, increasing blood pressure 10. (9) Dont Pee It Out Glucose Chill out on sweets OR Diabetic?! Protein Increased Physical Activity & Pregnancy OR Hypertension & Nephron Disease?! Pus Urinary Tract Infection Blood Kidney Stones, Infection, Trauma, Anemia ?! Bile Liver Disease?! 11. (12) Kidney Dialysis Used in hospitals when kidneys fail (stop working) Blood is filtered through mechanical pump + tubing which regulates contents Causes for Kidney Failure: Repeated kidney infections Physical Trauma Heavy Metal / Chemical poisoning Low Blood delivery (arteriosclerosis)