Anatomy of gall bladder and excretory bile ducts

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MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF KAZAKHSTAN SEMEY STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITYSIWDone By: Myrzakhanov Yerik 3course GMF 348 groupChecked By: Milyushina Ya A.Semey 2014

PlanIntroduction Gallbladder: anatomy topography Bile duct: AnatomyConclusion Invertebratesthegallbladder(cholecyst,gall bladderorbiliary vesicle) is a smallorganwherebile is stored, before it is released into thesmall intestine. Humans can live without a gallbladder. The gallbladder is a hollow organ that sits just beneath the right lobe of theliver.In adults, the gallbladder measures approximately 8 centimeters in length and 4 centimeters in diameter when fully distended.The gallbladder has a capacity of about 100mL.The gallbladder is shaped like a tapered sac, with the open end opening into thebiliary treeand thecystic duct. Introduction

Anatomy

1 - neck of the gallbladder;2 - body of gall bladder;3 - common hepatic duct; 4 - cystic duct;5 - mucosa of the gallbladder;6 - spiral fold;7 - small folds of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder; 8 - muscular layer of the gallbladder;9 - the bottom of the gall bladder;10 - the common bile duct;Anatomically, the gallbladder is divided into three sections: thefundus,body, andneck:Thefundusis a rounded end that faces the front of the body. Thebody(Latin:corpus) is in contact with the liver, lying indepressionat the bottom of the liver. Thenecktapers and is continuous with thecystic duct, part of thebiliary tree. The cystic duct unites with thecommon hepatic ductto become thecommon bile duct.

At the neck of the gallbladder is a mucosal fold calledHartmann's pouch, wheregallstonescommonly get stuck. The angle of the gallbladder is located between thecostal marginand the lateral margin of therectus abdominal muscle. The fundus is at the same level as the transpyloric plane.

Location gallbladder depends on the age and physique. Usually it is projected into the anterior abdominal wall at the intersection of the right parasternal line and the line connecting the ends of the 10 ribs, and in relation to the spine - at LI-LII.

Topography

Gallbladder is in the gallbladder fossa on the lower surface of the liver. It serves as a reference boundary of the right lobe of the liver

Bile ductFrom the liver leave right and left hepatic ducts, merging into the gate in the common hepatic duct. As a result of its merger with the cystic duct forms the common bile duct.

AnatomyThe common bile duct passes between the sheets of the lesser omentum anterior to the portal vein and right hepatic artery. Located posterior to the first segment of the duodenum in the groove on the rear surface of the head of the pancreas, it is included in the second division of the duodenum.

Duct obliquely crosses the posteromedial wall of the gut and is usually connected to the main pancreatic duct, forming Phater's ampulla (faterova vial).

Ampoule forms a protrusion of the mucosa, directed into the lumen, - large duodenal papilla (papilla Phater). Approximately 12-15% of the patients the common bile duct and pancreatic duct opens into the duodenum separately.

Dimensions of the common bile duct in determining different methods not identical. Duct diameter, measured in operations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 cm in diameter duct endoscopic cholangiography typically less than 11 mm and a diameter of 18 mm is considered pathological.At ultrasound examination (U.S.) in the norm it is even less of 2-7 mm; at a greater diameter common bile duct is considered advanced.Part of the common bile duct extending in the duodenal wall, surrounded by a shaft longitudinal and circular muscle fibers, called the sphincter of Oddi.ConclusionIn this case of conclusion I would like to give a few interesting facts:Numerous words in the English language relate to the gallbladder and thebilethat it stores. To have 'gall' is associated with bold behavior, whereas to have 'bile' is associated with bitterness.In the Chinese language, the gallbladder (Chinese:) is associated with courage and a plethora of relatedidioms, including using terms such as "a body completely [of] gall" (Chinese:) to describe a brave person, and "single gallbladder hero" (Chinese:) to describe a lone hero.In theZangfutheory ofChinese medicine, the gallbladder not only has a digestive role, but is seen as the seat of decision-making.

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