Anatomia

download Anatomia

of 33

  • date post

    30-Oct-2014
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    27
  • download

    3

Embed Size (px)

description

Material del curso de anatomia

Transcript of Anatomia

Instituto Tolteca de Mxico ZAragoza

http://on.fb.me/xrhfisioterapia

Anatomia de extremidades Temario del curso de Anatomia de extremidades, el cual ha sido diseado para los alumnos de 2do semestre (ciclo escolar 2011-2012 B) de la licenciatura en fisioterapia del Instituto Tolteca de Mxico Zaragoza. Es nuestro deseo que estos temas resulten ser tan apasionantes como el tiempo que se ha dedicado en la elaboracin y revisin de cada uno de ellos. Felicidades por el curso que hoy inicias, y esperamos continues con ese mismo entusiasmo hasta el final. .:.

XRH .:.TemarioOsteologa de la extremidad 2

Bloque 1. superior 1.1 1.2

Generalidades ....................................... 2 Huesos y articulaciones (Figura 6) ........ 2 A. Clavicle (collarbone) .................. 2 B. Scapula (shoulder blade) ........... 2 C. Humerus (see Figure 2-1) .......... 2 D. Radius (Figure 2-2) .................... 3

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4

1.2.5 E. Ulna (see Figure 2-2) 1. Olecranon 3 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.2.8 1.3 1.4 1.5 F. Carpal bones (see Figure 2-2) .... 4 G. Metacarpals............................... 4 H. Phalanges .................................. 4

Cuadros ................................................. 5 Figuras ................................................... 8 Ejercicios ............................................. 24

Fta. & Blgo. Xavier Rivera Hernndez

Pg. 1

Instituto Tolteca de Mxico ZAragoza

http://on.fb.me/xrhfisioterapiaAnatomia de extremidades

Bloque 1.

Osteologa de la extremidad superiorblade)

5. GLENOID CAVITY Las articulaciones dividen la Is deepened by the glenoid 1. SPINE OF THE extremidad superior en cuatro labrum for the head of the SCAPULA regiones principales: el hombro, humerus . Is a triangular-shaped process el brazo, el antebrazo y la mano that continues laterally as the 6. SUPRAGLENOID AND (Figura 6 y Error! Reference acromion. INFRAGLENOID source not found.). Divides the dorsal surface of the TUBERCLES La cintura escapular (hombro) scapula into the upper Provide origins for the tendons es un anillo incompleto formada supraspinous and lower of the long heads of the biceps por los huesos de la escpula infraspinous fossae. brachii and triceps brachii derecha e izquierda y la Provides an origin for the muscles, respectively. clavcula, que se unen deltoid and an insertion for the medialmente al manubrio del 1.2.3 C. Humerus (see Figure trapezius. esternn. 2-1) 2. ACROMION 1. HEAD 1.2 Huesos y articulaciones Is the lateral end of the spine and articulates with the clavicle. Has a smooth, rounded, (Figura 6) articular surface and articulates Provides an origin for the 1.2.1 A. Clavicle (collarbone) with the scapula at the deltoid and an insertion for the glenohumeral joint. trapezius. Is a commonly fractured bone that forms the pectoral 2. ANATOMIC NECK 3. CORACOID PROCESS (shoulder) girdle with the Is an indentation distal to the Provides the origin of the scapula , which connects the head of the humerus and coracobrachialis and biceps upper limb to the axial skeleton provides for the attachment of brachii and the insertion of the (sternum), by articulating with the fibrous joint capsule. pectoralis minor. the sternum at the Provides an attachment site for sternoclavicular joint and with 3. GREATER TUBERCLE the coracoclavicular, the acromion of the scapula at Lies just lateral to the anatomic coracohumeral, and the acromioclavicular joint. neck and provides attachments coracoacromial ligaments and Has the medial two thirds tilted for the supraspinatus, the costocoracoid membrane. convex forward and the lateral infraspinatus, and teres minor one third flattened with a muscles. 4. SCAPULAR NOTCH marked concavity. Is bridged by the superior Is the first bone to begin 4. LESSER TUBERCLE transverse scapular ligament ossification during fetal and is converted into a foramen, Lies on the anterior medial side development, but it is the last of the humerus, just distal to the which permits passage of the one to complete ossification , at anatomic neck, and provides an suprascapular nerve. about age 21 years. insertion for the subscapularis Is the only long bone to be muscle. ossified intramembranously.

1.1 Generalidades

1.2.2 B. Scapula (shoulderFta. & Blgo. Xavier Rivera Hernndez Pg. 2

Instituto Tolteca de Mxico ZAragoza

http://on.fb.me/xrhfisioterapiaAnatomia de extremidades

1.2.4 D. Radius (Figure 2-2) 5. INTERTUBERCULAR 10. CAPITULUM (BICIPITAL) GROOVE Is the lateral articular surface, Is shorter than the ulna and is Lies between the greater and globular in shape, and situated lateral to the ulna. lesser tubercles, lodges the articulates with the head of the Is characterized by tendon of the long head of the radius. P.21 displacement of the hand biceps brachii muscle, and is dorsally and radially when 11. OLECRANON FOSSA bridged by the transverse fractured at its distal end Is a posterior depression above humeral ligament , which (Colles' fracture). the trochlea of the humerus that restrains the tendon of the houses the olecranon of the biceps brachii long head. 1. HEAD (PROXIMAL END) ulna on full extension of the Provides insertions for the Articulates with the capitulum of forearm. pectoralis major on its lateral lip the humerus and the radial notch of , the teres major on its medial the ulna and is surrounded by the 12. CORONOID FOSSA lip , and the latissimus dorsi on annular ligament . Is an anterior depression above its floor. the trochlea of the humerus that 2. DISTAL END accommodates the coronoid 6. SURGICAL NECK Articulates with the proximal process of the ulna on flexion of Is a narrow area distal to the row of carpal bones , including the the elbow. tubercles that is a common site scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral of fracture and is in contact with bones but excluding the pisiform 13. RADIAL FOSSA the axillary nerve and the bone. Is an anterior depression above posterior humeral circumflex the capitulum that is occupied artery. 3. RADIAL TUBEROSITY by the head of the radius during Is an oblong prominence just full flexion of the elbow joint. 7. DELTOID TUBEROSITY distal to the neck and provides an Is a V-shaped roughened area attachment site for the biceps 14. LATERAL on the lateral aspect of the brachii tendon. EPICONDYLE midshaft that marks the insertion of the deltoid muscle. Projects from the capitulum and 4. STYLOID PROCESS provides the origin of the Is located on the distal end of supinator and extensor muscles 8. SPIRAL GROOVE the radius and is about 1 cm distal of the forearm. Contains the radial nerve, to that of the ulna and provides separating the origin of the insertion of the brachioradialis 15. MEDIAL EPICONDYLE lateral head of the triceps above muscle. Projects from the trochlea and and the origin of the medial Can be palpated in the proximal has a groove on the back for the head below. part of the anatomic snuffbox ulnar nerve and superior ulnar between the extensor pollicis collateral artery. 9. TROCHLEA longus and brevis tendons. Provides attachment sites for Is the medial articular surface, the ulnar collateral ligament, shaped like a spool, and 1.2.5 E. Ulna (see Figure 2-2) the pronator teres, and the articulates with the trochlear 1. Olecranon common tendon of the forearm notch of the ulna . Is the curved projection on the flexor muscles. back of the elbow that provides an attachment site for the tricepsFta. & Blgo. Xavier Rivera Hernndez Pg. 3

Instituto Tolteca de Mxico ZAragoza tendon. 2. CORONOID PROCESS Is located below the trochlear notch and provides an attachment site for the brachialis. 3. TROCHLEAR NOTCH Receives the trochlea of the humerus.

http://on.fb.me/xrhfisioterapiaAnatomia de extremidades

bone contained in the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. 2. DISTAL ROW (LATERAL TO MEDIAL): TRAPEZIUM, TRAPEZOID, CAPITATE, AND HAMATE

1.2.7 G. Metacarpals

4. ULNAR TUBEROSITY Is a roughened prominence distal to the coronoid process that provides an attachment site for the 1.2.8 H. Phalanges brachialis. Are miniature long bones consisting of bases, shafts, and 5. RADIAL NOTCH heads. The heads of the proximal Accommodates the head of the and middle phalanges form the radius. 6. Head (distal end) knuckles. Articulates with the articular disk of Occur in fingers (three each) and the distal radioulnar joint and has a thumb (two). styloid process.

Are miniature long bones consisting of bases (proximal ends), shafts (bodies), and heads (distal ends). Heads form the knuckles of the fist.

1.2.6 F. Carpal bones (see Figure 2-2)Are arranged in two rows of four (lateral to medial): Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, and Hamate (mnemonic device: Sandra Likes To Pat Tom's Two Cold .:. XRH XRH .:. Aunque es Hands). (Trapezium precedes habitual dividir el desarrollo trapezoid alphabetically.) humano en los perodos prenatal (anterior al nacimiento) y posnatal 1. PROXIMAL ROW (despus del nacimiento), el (LATERAL TO MEDIAL): nacimiento constituye, SCAPHOID, LUNATE, simplemente, un fenmeno TRIQUETRUM, AND decisivo durante el desarrollo, en el PISIFORM que se produce un cambio de Except for the pisiform, articulates with the radius and the ambiente (Moore y Persaud, 2004b). articular disk (the ulna has no contact with the carpal bones). The pisiform is said to be a sesamoid Fta. & Blgo. Xavier Rivera Hernndez Pg. 4

Instituto Tolteca de Mxico ZAragoza

http://on.fb.me/xrhfisioterapiaAnatomia de extremidades

1.3 CuadrosCuadro 1. Cintura pectoral (escapular). 2 huesoso en cada cintura, 4 huesoso en total Extremidad superior libre

Huesoso del esqueleto apendicular(63 huesoso en cada lado del cuerpo, 126 huesoso en total) Receptor nicotnico en