Analysis of Labour Market vs VET in Uganda

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A Presentation made at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway. June 2012

Transcript of Analysis of Labour Market vs VET in Uganda

  • 1. ANALYSIS OF WORLD OF WORK /LABOUR MARKET IN UGANDA VIS--VIS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING (VET) Wycliff E.Tusiime FK Participant Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences June 2012

2. PRESENTATION STRUCTURE Current Status of World of Work in Uganda The Concept of Work in Uganda Competencies Required from Employees inUgandas Labour market today Vocational Education &Training (VET) The Required Nature of VET VET Challenges Way forward 3. WORLD OF WORK/LABOUR MARKET:Definition This is where workers find paying work, employersfind willing workers, and wage rates are determined. It is where actual work takes place. It includeslabourers who are skilled, semi-skilled and non-skilled (uneducated labourers) Ugandas labour market is slack meaning there aremore workers than the jobs availbale. 4. Its Size Labour force: approx. 11.5m persons aged 1464 (2009/2010 UNHS estimates - UBOS) Composition: Female 53% Male: 47% Area distribution: Rural 85% Urban 15% Literacy rate: 77% (No education or attained primary) 33% (educated) Age distribution: 75% (below 40 years)This indicates that majority of the individuals entering labour market have no skills considering that the primary schools do not offer vocational working skill training. 5. Labour Participation Participation rate is 80% Rural women have higher participation rates thantheir urban counterparts. Illiterate persons available for work than the literateones. Persons without education have higher participationlevels than those with primary education, those withsecondary education have the lowest. Female participation for lower ages is higher thanthat of males. This shows that females enter the labour market atyoung ages than males. 6. Unemployment Vs Education The lowest unemployment is found among thosewith no education, followed by those with primaryeducation. The rate of unemployment of graduates stood at17.4% in 2005. (UBOS, 2006) The Population Report (UBOS, 2010), revealed that400,000 graduates join the Labour market each yearand only 80,000 get employed.This shows that there is need to orient graduates from being job seekers to job makers. Government needs to develop policies and ensure that children are kept in schools. 7. THE CONCEPT OF WORK INUGANDAFor various reasons, the concept of work haschanged significantly in the last three decades.Work manifests its self in two major concepts inUganda today:The traditional concept of workThe modern concept of work 8. Traditional Concept of Work Work means paid employment Full time job involving about 40 hours of employmentper week Permanent job where one works until he chooses tomove on For life till retirement with retirement benefits Career development with prospects of growth atwork A defined employer-worker relationship exists Work-family chores are clearly separate 9. The Traditional Nature of Work Structured and rigid job descriptions Hierarchical reporting and supervisionstructures Tools of work are available and provided Rules and regulations strongly observed Boss-subordinate relationship Decision making structures highly structured mostly top-down and rigid 10. The Modern Concept of Work Engagement in productive activity to earn aliving Not about time spent but about output May be full-time, part-time, or contract Work may be office-based, home-based, ormobile Work is associated with earning and survival May be in the formal or informal sector 11. The Modern Nature of Work Mostlyunstructured systems Flexibility in the execution of work Teamwork required to accomplish tasks Creativity is encouraged Multi-skills required Characterized by new and changingtechnologies 12. Competencies Required from Employees inUgandas Labour market today Should embrace the concept of lifelong learning and be readyto learn more and to learn new things throughout their lives Should have cross-disciplinary knowledge Should have good communication and interpersonal skills Should be ready to work in teams Should pay attention to details Should be creative and innovative Should be ready for self-adjustment Should be committed Should display a sense of responsibility Should have functional skills 13. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ANDTRAINING (VET): Its Meaning The terms vocational education and vocationaltraining are commonly used together, sometimesseparately, and sometimes interchangeably. Vocational Education refers to provision ofknowledge about vocations and about skills requiredfor production of goods and services. Vocational training refers to the process of actualskills acquisition targeting specific outputs. 14. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ANDTRAINING: Its Purpose To provide general knowledge about vocations andwork for personal development To provide knowledge and skills for individual useand personal development To provide knowledge, attitudes, and skillsnecessary for community development To provide appropriate skills for industry and nationaldevelopment 15. Current Status of VET VETis currently undertaken at various levelsby various categories of clients Informal sector VET Pre-primary and primary school VE Secondary school VE Post-secondary level VET 16. Vocational Education and Training inthe Informal Sector Itaims at providing skills for productivity andself-reliance. It is: Most relevant education and training Focused on specific skills delivery andacquisition Targets requirements of the labour market Characterized by apprenticeships, on the jobtraining, and experiential learning 17. Pre-primary and Primary VocationalEducationThe following are the aims of VET at this level:to enable pupils to master fundamental knowledge and techniques used in vocational tasks.to develop childrens ability in the use of hands and head and educate them to appreciate the value dignity and decisive role of labour in processes of production and in public welfare.to promote rational thinking and attitudinal change in favour of productive manual work.to stimulate interest among pupils in the acquisition of basic skills ultimately leading to the development of a strong technological awareness in the masses and ,to promote intergration of technical subjects with other subjects.to lay a firm and viable basis in the development of the lives of the citizens, and of the country upon which a national, managerial, technical and scientific base can be founded and established. 18. Secondary Vocational EducationAt secondary school level, the purpose is to:instill positive attitudes towards work and strong respect forthose who engage in productive labour activities. To expose students to various trades in the world of work To provide basic and general entry level job skills for immediatepersonal application for positive employment on leaving school. To lay a foundation for more advanced technical training. 19. Post-Secondary VETThe purpose of VET at this level is: To facilitate interpretation, application and translation of basic knowledge andunderstanding of fundamental facts and principles of science processes andtechniques to be able to produce and use tools and labour saving devices forproductive work. Inculcate an appreciation of labour and the environment as a resource base. To impart skills necessary for protection, utilization and conservation ofenvironmental heritage. To refine and consolidate indigenous artistic and technological skills in orderto produce things of aesthetic and cultural value. To consolidate, synthesize and apply the ability to use the head, heart andhands towards innovations, modernization and improvement in the quality oflife; and To broaden and increase technological awareness and the capacity of thelearner to engage in productive activities for becoming self-reliant. 20. THE REQUIRED NATURE OF VET Demand driven Flexible Multi-skilled Attitude driven (career guidance) Labour market information systems Entrepreneurial skills Environmental issues ICT 21. VET CHALLENGES Equipment and tools Retraining staff Curriculum changes Evolving needs of the workplace Socio-economic climate Skills levels and requirements Labour market information systems Donor driven policies and programmes. 22. WAY FORWARD Labour market information Resource mobilization Curriculum relevance and flexibility Employer involvement Strengthen private public partnership Lifelong learning Multi-skilling School enterprises Needs assessment must be a critical part ofcurriculum planning 23. Bibliography Uganda (1992) The Government White Paper on Implementation ofthe Report of the Education Review Commission. Kampala, Uganda. MISR (2006) Graduate Tracer and Employers Expectations inUganda. Kampala, Uganda MLGSD (2006) Labour Market Information Status (LMIS) Report forUganda. Kampala, Uganda. Tusiime, W.E (2010) Master Thesis: Vocational Education andTraining Graduates and the Labour Market in Uganda. KyambogoUniversity, Kampala. Prever Mukasa (2011) The Labour Market and Todays Graduate.Accessed athttp://www.ucu.ac.ug/thestandard/life-and-style/28-life-and-style/915-the-labou. MLGSD (2011) The National Employment Policy for Uganda.Kampala, Uganda. 24. Bibliography cont. UBOS (2010) The Urban Labour Force Survey Report.Kampala, Uganda. Precious N (2011) Ugandas Education Irrelevant to LabourMarket Minister. Article accessed athttp://ugandaradionetwork.com/a/story.php?s=35920#ixzz1vVA5oc00on 21.05.2012 at 13:14pm