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    INDEX   “n” refers to notes Abbasid empire, 170, 214, 297. See

    also Caliphates Abrahamic traditions, 5, 8, 12, 117 Abu Bakr, Caliph, 292, 294 Abu Bakr, Mohammad bin Abi-Sahl

    al-Sarakhsi, 257 Abu Ghraib, 302 Afghanistan, 24, 26, 41–42, 46, 60,

    300 ahimsa (non-violence), 37, 43–44, 53,

    69 akhbar (the narrations of the Imams),

    255, 258, 260, 263, 265, 278n19 Albanians. See Kosovo Alciatus, Andreas, 147 Alexander I, Russian Emperor, 195 Alexander III, Russian Emperor, 196 Alexandria, 168–69, 188, 190, 206 Alexis I, Tsar, 193–94 al-harb khada (deception in warfare),

    41 alliance(s), 2, 4, 10n3, 46–47, 50–51,

    88, 111 Islam and, 195, 234, 285–86, 291–

    92, 294, 300 al-Qaeda, 10, 119, 300–301, 313–14 al-Qisas (the law of retaliation), 266 ambiguity, scriptural, 12 Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion,

    Violence, and Reconciliation (Appleby), 17

    Ambrose, Saint, 6, 144–45, 148, 168, 309

    America. See also United States of America

    about, 8, 46, 228, 299–300 American Civil War, 235, 247 American Fifth Fleet, 48 American Revolution, 247 Canon Law Society of America,

    163n56

    Anabaptist tradition, 6–7, 220–21, 226, 242. See also Christianity, Protestant

    Peace Churches and, 7, 221 anarchy, 35, 226, 237 Anatolia

    about, 179–81, 183, 189, 192, 211n13, 213n33

    Ottoman conquest of, 186 Seljuk sultanate and, 171–72, 181

    Anglicanism, 6–7, 220–21, 228, 239, 247. See also Christianity, Protestant

    Anglican Communion and, 228 Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican

    Confession and, 228 Anglican denominations, 6–7, 220–21,

    228–29, 239, 247 anti-militarism. See pacifism Antioch, 188, 190–91 anti-Semitism, 15, 199. See also

    Holocaust apocalyptic tradition(s), 167, 189, 198,

    223 Appleby, R. Scott, 17 aql (intellect), 256 Aquinas, Thomas, 15

    Protestant Christianity and, 220, 222, 226, 230–31

    Roman Catholic Christianity and, 152, 154, 158–59, 168, 209

    Summa theologiae and, 149, 156 Arabia, 293–94, 296. See also Saudi

    Arabia arahants (religious people), 65, 72–73 Archbishop of Canterbury, 197 Argentina, Dirty War of, 18 Arian movement, 173 Aristotle, 14–15, 36, 226, 313 armed force(s). See also force, use of

    about, 3–4, 11–14, 16, 20, 22, 27, 303

    Buddhism and, 60, 62, 65, 67–68, 76, 79

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    armed force(s) (continued) Eastern Orthodox Christianity and,

    7, 166, 168, 173, 175, 179, 193–94

    Hinduism and, 35–43, 45, 47–49, 52–53

    as holy war, 305–7 international law and, 25–26 Israel and, 5, 108–9, 117, 120–21,

    124, 126, 311 Japan and, 62, 87–88, 91, 95, 99 Protestant Christianity and, 76, 222–

    23, 225–27, 231–34, 241–42 renunciation of, 26, 66, 88, 96, 142,

    159n1, 303 Roman Catholic Christianity and,

    142–45, 147–48, 150–51, 154– 59, 159n1

    Russian Orthodox Church and, 199– 200, 207

    Shia Islam and, 263, 266, 271, 273– 75

    Sri Lanka and, 79–80, 82 Sunni Islam and, 285–88, 293–94,

    297, 299 Yugoslavia and, 197–98, 203–6,

    309 Armenia, 162n37, 207 army, fourfold (caturangabalakaya),

    65 Arnobius, 168 Aryan tribes, 30, 34–35 asceticism, 72, 170, 174

    Hinduism and, 43–45, 52 Asian religion(s), 23–24, 46, 67, 75 Asoka, Emperor, 37, 39, 53, 72

    as Buddhist, 66–67 renunciation of military force and,

    66 assassination(s), 13, 36, 39, 44 Assyria, 110–11, 126, 182 asymmetric warfare, 2, 5, 22, 24, 27,

    48–49, 311. See also terrorism Israel and, 107, 122–25

    Athanasius, Saint, 169 atomic weapons. See nuclear weapons atrocities, 23, 88, 92, 154, 293, 302 Augustine, Saint, 6, 15, 75, 148, 155–

    56, 168, 170 just war and, 144–45 Protestant Christianity and, 207, 220,

    223–24, 226–27, 240 two kingdoms theory and, 222–24,

    227–28, 244 Avar khagan, 184 Avars, 184 Averroes, 24 Axis powers, 147, 199 Axis powers’ Tripartite Pact, 216n66 aya(s) (Qur’anic sentences), 284, 286,

    290, 292, 295–96 Azerbaijan, 207 Babylon, 126, 133

    Babylonian Talmud, 114–16 Baha’i teaching, 12 Bainton, Roland, 185, 208 Balkan nation-states, 183, 186, 189–

    90, 192–99, 201–2 Balkan War of 1912, 196 Balsamon, Theodore, 170, 172 Banu Jadhimah, 293 Baptist tradition, 228. See also

    Anabaptist tradition Barani, Ziauddin, 43 barbarian(s), 93, 168, 178, 186 Barth, Karl, 221, 233–35, 251n96 Bartholomeusz, Tessa J., 75, 78–79 Bartholomew, Ecumenical Patriarch, 7 Basil, Saint, 169–74, 188, 211n15

    Divine Liturgy of, 174 Belgrade, 205 bellum iustum, 145. See also jus ad

    bellum bellum offensivum, 154 Bemporad, Jack, x, 5–6 Bhagavad Gita, 30–31, 33 Bhakari, Surinder Kumar, 37

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    bhakti tradition ( devotionalist), 44–45 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 48, 50 bheda (sowing dissent), 35–36, 43,

    48–49 Bible, the. See also New Testament

    Judaism and, 107–13, 126 Roman Catholic Christianity and,

    144–45 Bible, books of. See also New

    Testament, books of Amos 3:2, 112 Antiochus 3:218, 115 Book of Ruth, 111 Deuteronomy 20, 108–9, 111–13,

    115–16, 120, 225, 249n33 Exodus 12:12, 110 Exodus 22:1, 119 Ezekiel 20:32, 109 Ezra 2:63, 115 Genesis 2:8–25, 144 Genesis 3, 144 Genesis 4:1–16, 144 Genesis 9, 122 Genesis 11:1–9, 144 Hosea 2:18–20, 111 Hosea 14:3, 111 I Samuel 8:19–20, 109 Isaiah 19:25, 111 Micah 4, 110 Nehemia 7:65, 115 Psalm 82:6–7, 110

    Bible, Hebrew, 11, 108, 113 bid’a (innovations), 298–99 Bihar al-Anwar (Majlesi), 271, 274 Bin Laden, Osama, 292, 298–301 Bishops, Roman Catholic

    Amphilochus, Bishop, 169 National Conference of Catholic

    Bishops of the United States, 243

    Saint Ambrose as, 144 Saint Augustine as, 144 US Catholic Bishops, 143, 147, 151,

    154

    Bishops of the Orthodox Church, Holy Synod of, 8, 209, 217n73

    BJP. See Bharatiya Janata Party Blastares, Matthew, 172, 211n15 bodhisattva (one who aspires to

    enlightenment), 68 Bolshevik(s), 199 borders, defense of, 38, 90, 196, 203,

    266–67 Boris, Saint (Prince of Kievan Rus),

    185 Boroujerdi, Hussain (Ayatollah), 257,

    277n10 Bose, Subhas Chandra, 45 Bosnia, 1, 201–4, 206, 217n73 Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1, 201–3, 206,

    215n52, 217n73 Brahma (god of fire), 45 Brahmanism, 31, 53–54

    Brahmanical literature, 38 brahmastra (ultimate weapons or

    weapons of mass destruction), 51

    danda (use of legitimate force), 66 Brekke, Torkel, 24, 34–36 Brethren, the, 242 Bringing Religion into International

    Relations (Fox and Sandler), 14 British colonialism, 19, 31, 41, 76,

    201 anti-colonial struggle in India, 43–

    46 Cyprus and, 201 post-colonial India and Hinduism,

    46–49 Sri Lanka and, 76

    British Raj, the, 44. See also Gandhi, M. K.

    Buber, Martin, 109–10 Buddha, 3–4, 60–61, 67, 73, 79, 102,

    304 direct involvement in war and, 37,

    63–64

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    seven conditions of welfare and (satta aparihaniya dhamma ), 64

    Buddhism, 17, 24, 27, 60–87, 307–8 Asoka and, 37 defensive war and, 71–79 Five Precepts of, 84n31–84n32 Japanese, 89–92, 94–99 Jathika Hela Urumaya (political

    party of Buddhist monks), 79 Mahayana, 4, 67, 85n45 monastic rules and (Vinaya Pitaka),

    70, 75 monks and, 62, 72–73, 75–77 Nipponzan Myohoji, 94–95 righteous rule and, 65, 67, 72 Sri Lanka and, 3–4, 60–86, 313 Theravada, 3, 60–87 use of force and, 70–74, 78 war and, 61–68

    Buddhist Front (Bauddha Peramuna), 78

    Buddhist Theosophical Society, 76 Bulgaria, xi, 188, 190–91, 196–97,

    214n48, 218n79 Bush, George W. (President), 13, 247,

    300 bushido (the Way of the Warrior), 91 Byzantine Church, the, 175–87, 209.

    See also Christianity, Eastern Orthodox

    Byzantine Empire, 169–75, 214n39, 214n48

    patron saints of, military, 175–76 Byzantine period. See Christianity,

    Eastern Orthodox Cajetan, Dominican Cardinal Thomas

    de Vio, 149–50, 153 Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (CSS), 76 Caliphates, 49, 170–71, 186, 260,

    292–94, 298 about, 49, 170–71, 186, 256, 260,

    292–94, 298

    Infallibility of the Twelve Imams and, 255–56

    Ottoman, 186, 191 Calvin, John, 225–27 Calvinism, 6–7, 220–21, 225–40, 244,

    246–47. See also Christianity, Protestant

    Reformed movement and, 226, 228– 29

    Canaan(ites), 110–12, 115–16, 181 Canada, 26 canon law, 6, 145, 148, 158, 169–70,

    172, 183 Code of Canon Law, 155, 163n56

    canonization, 184, 197, 204 Cappadocian Fathers, 173, 211n17 Catechism of the Catholic Church,

    160n14, 164n69, 165n74–165n75 Catherine the Great, Empress, 189–90,

    215n50 Catholic Magisterium, 147, 154 Catholicism. See Christianity, Roman

    Catholic caturangabalakaya (fourfold army),

    65 causa belli, 1, 18 Charter of the United Nations. See

    United Nations Charter Chechnya, 1, 13, 207 China, 4, 46–47, 50–51, 61–62, 87–89,

    94, 101 Buddhism and, 67–68 invasion of Korea and, 62

    Chinese religion, 24, 37. See also Confucianism

    just war and, 33 chivalry, 42, 147, 159, 185, 288,