AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MILESTONE GROUND Worcestershire Archaeology Archive and Archaeology

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Transcript of AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MILESTONE GROUND Worcestershire Archaeology Archive and Archaeology

  • AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF

    MILESTONE GROUND BROADWAY

    WORCESTERSHIRE

    © Worcestershire County Council

    Worcestershire Archaeology Archive and Archaeology Service

    The Hive, Sawmill Walk, The Butts, Worcester

    WR1 3PD

    Date: 22 July 2014

    Status Revision 1 Author: Elizabeth Connolly, Andrew Walsh and Simon Woodiwiss

    Contributors: Laura Griffin and Elizabeth Pearson Illustrator: Carolyn Hunt

    Project reference: P4304 Report reference: 2127

    HER reference: WSM57125

  • Contents Summary 1 Report 1  Background ............................................................................... 3  1.1  Reasons for the project ....................................................................................... 3  2  The application site .................................................................. 3  2.1  Topography, geology and archaeological context ............................................... 3  2.2  Current land-use ................................................................................................. 4  3  Aims and objectives ................................................................. 4  4  Methods ..................................................................................... 4  4.1  Personnel ............................................................................................................ 4  4.2  Collection of existing information ........................................................................ 5  4.3  Fieldwork strategy ............................................................................................... 5  4.4  Structural analysis ............................................................................................... 6  4.5  Artefact methodology, by Laura Griffin ................................................................ 6 

    4.5.1  Artefact recovery policy ................................................................................ 6  4.5.2  Method of analysis ........................................................................................ 6 

    4.6  Environmental archaeology methodology, by Elizabeth Pearson ....................... 6  4.6.1  Sampling policy ............................................................................................ 7  4.6.2  Processing and analysis ............................................................................... 7  4.6.3  Discard policy ............................................................................................... 8 

    4.7  Statement of confidence in the methods and results .......................................... 8  5  Structural analysis .................................................................... 8  5.1  Phase 1: Natural deposits ................................................................................... 8  5.2  Phase 2: Earlier prehistoric ................................................................................. 8  5.3  Phase 3: Iron Age deposits ................................................................................. 8  5.4  Phase 4: Roman deposits ................................................................................... 9  5.5  Phase 5: Medieval to modern deposits ............................................................. 10  6  Artefact analysis, by Laura Griffin ........................................ 10  6.1  The artefact assemblage ................................................................................... 10  6.2  Pottery ............................................................................................................... 11 

    6.2.1  Iron Age ...................................................................................................... 11  6.2.2  Roman ........................................................................................................ 11 

    6.3  Other finds ......................................................................................................... 11  6.3.1  Earlier prehistoric ........................................................................................ 11  6.3.2  Iron Age ...................................................................................................... 11  6.3.3  Roman ........................................................................................................ 11  6.3.4  Post-medieval ............................................................................................. 11 

    6.4  Overview of artefactual evidence ...................................................................... 12  6.5  Discussion ......................................................................................................... 13  7  Environmental analysis, by Elizabeth Pearson .................... 13  7.1  Animal bone ...................................................................................................... 13  7.2  Macrofossil remains .......................................................................................... 13  7.3  Phase 2: Earlier prehistoric ............................................................................... 14  7.4  Phase 4: Roman ............................................................................................... 14  7.5  Synthesis ........................................................................................................... 14  8  Synthesis ................................................................................. 15  8.1  General ............................................................................................................. 15  8.2  Prehistoric ......................................................................................................... 15  8.3  Roman ............................................................................................................... 16  8.4  Anglo-Saxon ...................................................................................................... 18 

  • 8.5  Medieval to modern ........................................................................................... 18  9  Research frameworks ............................................................. 18  10  Significance .......................................................................... 20  10.1  Nature of the archaeological interest in the site ............................................. 20  10.2  Relative importance of the archaeological interest in the site ........................ 20  10.3  Physical extent of the archaeological interest in the site ............................... 21  11  The impact of the development .......................................... 22  11.1  Impacts during construction ........................................................................... 22  11.2  Impacts on sustainability ................................................................................ 22  12  Recommendations ............................................................... 23  13  Publication summary ........................................................... 24  14  Acknowledgements .............................................................. 25  15  Bibliography ......................................................................... 25 

  • Worcestershire Archaeology Worcestershire County Council

    Page 1

    An archaeological evaluation at Milestone Ground, Broadway, Worcestershire Elizabeth Connolly, Andrew Walsh and Simon Woodiwiss With contributions by Laura Griffin and Elizabeth Pearson Summary An archaeological evaluation was undertaken at Milestone Ground, Broadway, Worcestershire (National Grid reference SP 0892 3784) on behalf of Wychavon District Council who are preparing an application for mixed use development of the site.

    The archaeological significance of the site has been known at least from the first half of the 20th century when at least two phases of excavation were undertaken ahead of gravel extraction to the immediate south-east and north-west of the site. The result of one archaeological investigation published in 1946, recorded pits, ditches, stone paving or foundations and burnt daub from a possible hut. Finds included Roman and "native" pottery; at least three Roman bronze brooches, a limestone phallus, and the bones of an infant burial. At least seven unpublished inhumations were also recorded at the quarry. Sherds of late Neolithic Grooved Ware and a single Anglo-Saxon sherd were recorded from an earlier excavation. Interestingly this site was one of the first instances in which "Grooved Ware" was identified by Stuart Piggott, and plays a part in the early development of prehistoric studies.

    More recently the area of the cropmarks has been subject to fieldwalking which yielded assemblages of Romano-British pottery and Mesolithic flints indicating that human activity was taking place on the site in this period.

    A series of cropmarks identified on aerial photographs show settlement features on the site including a pit alignment, two groups of pits to the west, and a series of enclosures indicative of Iron Age and Romano-British activity. Within the main group of enclosures there were a number of rectangular and circular features, which may be buildings, roundhouses and more pits. An irregular shaped enclosure was visible to the east of the main complex and various linear features including an alignment of pits.

    Evaluation of the site comprised the excavation of nineteen trenches, des