Ambush and Counter Ambush

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Ambush and Counter Ambush

Transcript of Ambush and Counter Ambush

  • B-GL-318-010/FT-001(CFP/PFC 318 (10))

    MILITARY TRAINING

    VOLUME 10

    AMBUSH AND COUNTER-AMBUSH

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS CLASSIFIEDINFORMATION AFFECTING THE DEFENCE OF CANADA,AND SHALL BE PROTECTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THEREGULATIONS PRESCRIBED FOR THE SECURITYCLASSIFICATION APPEARING HEREIN. RELEASE OF THISPUBLICATION, OR INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN,TO ANY PERSON NOT AUTHORIZED TO RECEIVE IT, ISPROHIBITED BY THE OFFICIAL SECRETS ACT.

    OPI: FMC 77-12-13

    ISSUED ON AUTHORITY OF THE CHIEF OF THE DEFENCE STAFF

  • LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

    Insert latest changed pages; dispose of superseded pages in accordance with applicable orders.

    NOTE - On a changed page, the portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated by avertical line in the margin of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by miniaturepointing hands, or black vertical lines.

    Total number of pages in this publication is 66 consisting of the following:

    Page No. Change No.

    Title Page 0A 0i 0iii to V 01-1 02-1 to 2-29 03-1 to 3-16 0A-1, A-2 0B-1 to B-3 0C-1 to C-3 0D-1, D-2 0E-1 0F-1 to F-3 0

    Zero in Change No. column indicates an original page.

    Copyright 8 1978 by DND Canada

  • FOREWORD

    1. B-OL-318-010/FT-001, Military Training, Volume 10, Ambush and Counter-Ambush, isissued on authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff.

    2. This publication is effective on receipt.

    3. Any loss or suspected compromise of this publication, or portions thereof, shall bereported in accordance with A-SI-100-001/AS-000, (CFP 128(1)), Chap 34.

    4. Suggestions for changes shall be forwarded through normal channels to Force MobileCommand Headquarters, Attention SSO Infantry.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL

    SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION

    BackgroundScope

    CHAPTER 2 - AMBUSHES

    SECTION 1 - GENERAL

    IntroductionAmbush SitesTypesPrerequisite to Success

    SECTION 2 - PLANNING

    Alm and limitationsFactorsLayoutAction After Springing the AmbushWithdrawalAdministrationAlternative Plans

    SECTION 3 - PREPARATION AND OCCUPATION

    SequenceReconnaissanceOrders, Preparation and RehearsalsOccupationLying in Ambush

    SECTION 4 - EXECUTION

    Springing the AmbushSubsequent ActionWithdrawalAmbush at Night

  • SECTION 5 - SMALL DELIBERATE AMBUSHES

    IntroductionGroupingLayout

    SECTION 6 - LARGE DELIBERATE AMBUSHES

    SizeProblemsReaction and Counter

    Static AmbushesMobile Ambushes

    SECTION 7 - TRAINING

    GeneralCauses of FailureField Firing - Ambush Practices

    CHAPTER 3 - COUNTER-AMBUSH

    SECTION 1 - GENERAL

    IntroductionResponsibilities

    SECTION 2 - COUNTER-AMBUSH ACTION FOR A FORCE MOVING ON FOOT

    Avoidance of AmbushBreaking Out of an AmbushAction if Only Part of a Force is AmbushedAction if the Whole of a Force is AmbushedCounter Ambush by NightSpecial Points for Counter-Ambush

    SECTION 3 - COUNTER-AMBUSH ACTION FOR VEHICLE CONVOYS

    GeneralAction Before ContactAction On ContactContact DrillRoad BlocksDebussingTraining

  • SECTION 4 - COUNTER-AMBUSH ACTION FOR WATERCRAFT

    GeneralTypes of BoatsSecurityCounter-Ambush Boat Drills

    LIST OF ANNEXES

    ANNEXES TITLE

    A THE IMMEDIATE AMBUSH

    B AMBUSH ORDERS FORMAT

    C NOTES ON THE USE OF FLARES

    D IMMEDIATE ACTION DRILL

    E NOTES ON THE USE OF SANDBAGS FOR VEHICLEPROTECTION

    F LOADING OF LOCAL WATERCRAFT

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE TITLE

    2-1 Area Ambush

    2-2 Limited Ambush

    2-3 Large Scale Static Ambush

    2-4 Large Scale Mobile Ambush

    A-1 The Immediate Ambush

    C-1 Initiation of Trip Flares Detonating Cord Inserted inRecess on Flare

    C-2 Initiation of Trip Flare Detonating Cord Taped to Top ofFlare Recess

    C-3 Initiation of Flare Detonator Taped in Flare Recess

  • D-1 Immediate Action Drill

    F-1 Use of Sandbags in Vehicles

    F-1 Recommended Troop Dispositions in a Canoe

  • CHAPTER 1

    GENERAL

    SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION

    Background

    1. Ambushing, which is perhaps the oldest tactic in the long history of war, has in recenttimes become the most widely used insurgent technique. This is because successful ambushesachieve results far out of proportion to the forces deployed and permit the ambushers to meltaway quickly before normal retaliatory action can be mounted effectively.

    2. The soldier must master-counter ambush techniques so that the tables can be turnedspeedily on the ambusher. It is even more important that we should acquire the ability to set andexecute a successful ambush, and so exploit to the full the principle of surprise and theadvantages of an ambush which terrain affords in many combat situations.

    Scope

    3. This pamphlet has been compiled to provide a comprehensive guide on the veryimportant subjects of ambush and counter-ambush, It is based on the experience gained by theAustralian soldiers in actual operations.

    4. Of necessity, other branches, while rarely attaining the standard required of theinfantryman, must achieve a good measure of proficiency if disaster is to be forestalled. "Ambushand Counter-Ambush" which provides a common doctrine for all branches defines the desiredstandard. The doctrine contained herein supplements both CFP 309(3), Section and Platoon inBattle, and CFP 309(4), Patrolling.

  • CHAPTER 2

    AMBUSHES

    SECTION 1 - GENERAL

    Introduction

    1. An ambush is a surprise attack upon a moving or temporarily halted enemy by a forcelying in wait. It is usually a brief encounter and does not require the capture and holding ofground.

    2. The ambush is undoubtedly one of the oldest stratagems of battle. Even the invention andrefinement of modern weapons, motor vehicles and aircraft have had little effect on the ambushpattern and techniques. The attack from ambush in ancient days was an action at close quarters,and it still is, despite the range of modern weapons.

    3. Ambushes may be used in front of, and behind the enemy FEBA, against both regular andinsurgent forces. A series of successful ambushes will make the enemy apprehensive andcautious in movement. Continued success will finally inflict a virtual paralysis on the enemy.

    Ambush Sites

    4. Suitable places for ambush include:

    a. Known enemy routes in forward and read areas;

    b. Administrative areas, supply and water points. In counter insurgency operations known orsuspected food dumps and arms caches are particularly suitable,

    c. Areas where a marked change of vegetation occurs, such as the junction of the tree lineand tundra; and

    d. Probable lines of enemy withdrawal after a successful attack by our forces.

    Types

    5. There are two types of ambush;

    a. Deliberate; and

    b. Immediate.

  • 6. The Deliberate Ambush - A deliberate ambush is one planned and executed as a separateoperation. Generally, time will allow planning, preparation, and rehearsal in great detail. Thedeliberate ambush may vary in size from a small four man ambush to a major operation using aninfantry battalion. Many opportunities will exist for small scale ambushes; the ambush of up toplatoon strength is the normal size used. Successful large scale ambushes will be more difficultto achieve but every opportunity must be taken to do so. Some examples of these are:

    a. In counter insurgency operations luring an enemy follow up force into a prepared ambushposition; and

    b. When information provides exact enemy locations, such as an assembly area, or themovement of large numbers of reinforcements.

    The smaller the force the easier it will be to introduce it into the ambush area, to control theoperation and to extricate the force after contact.

    7. The Immediate Ambush An immediate ambush is one set with it minimum of planning toanticipate imminent enemy action, or its a purely defensive technique by a force such as a patrol.In these circumstances little or no time will be available for reconnaissance before occupation ofthe site. The degree of success achieved will depend on the initiative of the commanderconcerned, prior rehearsal of proven drills and team work.

    A suggested drill for an immediate ambush by a patrol is described in Annex A. It shouldnormally only be laid in areas where civilian movement by night is prohibited.

    Prerequisite to Success

    8. Instantaneous coordinated action against a surprised enemy contained within a wellcovered killing ground is essential for success. This requires:

    a. Sound intelligence;

    b. Careful planning, reconnaissance and rehearsal;

    c. Security in planning, preparation and execution;

    d. Concealment;

    e. Good control;

    f. A simple clear cut plan for springing the ambush;

    g. Maximum use of fire power. This includes accurate shooting; and

    h. A high standard of battle discipline, particularly by night.

  • 9. Very careful preliminary training is required as only well trained troops with the higheststandards of camouflage, concealment and fire discipline can hope to achieve success. This mustbe impressed on all ranks engaged in ambush operations. Once in their fire positions, soldiersmust remain motionless with safety catches off, and refrain from scratching, slapping at insects,smoking, eating, drinking or relieving themselves. An ambush can be ruined by the accidentaldischarge of a weapon or by an excited soldier firing before the order is given. Unless thisstandard of battle discipline can be reached in all aspects, it is useless to embark on ambushing atall.

    10. Sections 2 to 4 deal with points of planning and execution common to ambushes of allsizes. Points particularly relevant to small and large scale ambushes arc co