Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis and Treatments - M. Boyd (Nova, 2011) BBS

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Transcript of Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis and Treatments - M. Boyd (Nova, 2011) BBS

NEUROLOGY LABORATORY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENTS

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NEUROLOGY LABORATORY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENTS

MARISA R. BOYDEDITOR

Nova Science Publishers, Inc.New York

Copyright 2011 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. Additional color graphics may be available in the e-book version of this book. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATAAlzheimer's disease diagnosis and treatments / editor, Marisa R. Boyd. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-61122-586-0 (eBook) 1. Alzheimer's disease--Diagnosis. 2. Alzheimer's disease--Treatment. I. Boyd, Marisa R. [DNLM: 1. Alzheimer Disease--diagnosis. 2. Alzheimer Disease--therapy. WT 155] RC523.A397596 2010 616.8'31--dc22 2010036435

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York

CONTENTSPreface Chapter 1 Alzheimers Disease 100 Years of Research: A Historical Perspective and Commentary Walter J. Lukiw Controlled and Automatic Memory Processing in Alzheimers Disease John M. Hudson Age of Onset Related Differences in Clinical and Neuropsychological Features of Alzheimers Disease Erin Saito, Eliot Licht, Aaron M. McMurtray and Mario F. Mendez Early Onset Dementia with Abundant Non-Neuritic A Plaques and without Significant Neuronal Loss: Report of Two Japanese Autopsy Cases Osamu Yokota, Kuniaki Tsuchiya and Shigetoshi Kuroda How and Where Does A Exert its Toxic Effects in Alzheimers Disease? Damian C. Crowther, Richard M. Page, Leila Luheshi and David A. Lomas The Spatial Patterns of -Amyloid (A ) Deposits and Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFT) in Late-Onset Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease Richard A. Armstrong Brain Function in Altered States of Consciousness: Comparison between Alzheimer Dementia and Vegetative State Mlanie Boly, Eric Salmon and Steven Laureys Cognitive Deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment F. Ribeiro, M. Guerreiro and A. de Mendona ix 1

Chapter 2

7

Chapter 3

25

Chapter 4

35

Chapter 5

59

Chapter 6

71

Chapter 7

83 99

Chapter 8

vi Chapter 9

Contents Mitochondrial Pathology and Alzheimers Disease Michelangelo Mancuso, Cecilia Carlesi, Selina Piazza and Gabriele Siciliano Calmodulin Binds to and Regulates the Activity of Beta-Secretase (BACE1) Sara E. Chavez and Danton H. ODay Transgenic Models of Alzheimers Pathology: Success and Caveats Benot Delatour, Camille Le Cudennec, Nadine El Tannir-El Tayara and Marc Dhenain Relevance of COX-2 Inhibitors in Alzheimers Disease Amita Quadros, Laila Abdullah, Nikunj Patel and Claude-Henry Volmar Copper Studies in Alzheimers Disease R. Squitti, G. Dal Forno, S. Cesaretti, M. Ventriglia and P. M. Rossini Theoretical Comparison of Copper Chelators as Anti-Alzheimer and Anti-Prion Agents Liang Shen, Hong-Yu Zhang and Hong-Fang Ji Toward a More Rational Approach to the Treatment of Patients with Dementia with Psychosis and Behavioral Disturbance Suzanne Holroyd Amyloid Clearing Immunotherapy for Alzheimers Disease and the Risk of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Shawn J. Kile and John M. Olichney Use of Antidepressants in Older People with Mental Illness; A Systematic Study of Tolerability and Use in Different Diagnostic Groups Stephen Curran, Debbie Turner, Shabir Musa, Andrew Byrne and John Wattis Cystatin C Role in Alzheimer Disease: from Neurodegeneration to Neuroregeneration Luisa Benussi, Giuliano Binetti and Roberta Ghidoni A Theoretical Evaluation on Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibitory Potential of Quercetin Hong-Fang Ji and Hong-Yu Zhang Therapy with Drug Product AZD-103 May Ease Alzheimer's Disease Antonio Orlacchio and Toshitaka Kawarai 111

Chapter 10

125 137

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

169

Chapter 13

183

Chapter 14

203

Chapter 15

209

Chapter 16

213

Chapter 17

221

Chapter 18

231

Chapter 19

243

Chapter 20

251

Contents Chapter 21 NSAIDs in Animal Models of Alzheimer's Disease M. G. Giovannini, C. Scali, A. Bellucci, G. Pepe and F. Casamenti

vii 255

Index

281

PREFACEDementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. The most common form of dementia among older people is Alzheimer's Disease (AD), which involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language. Age is the most important known risk factor for AD. The course the disease takes and the speed at which changes occur vary from person to person. On average, AD patients live from 8 to 10 years after they are diagnosed, though the disease can last for as many as 20 years. This book presents research in the study of Alzheimer's Disease, including diagnosis, testing and treatment of this condition. Chapter 1 - In November 1906, in Tubingen, Germany, Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) first described his laboratorys clinical and neuropathological findings on a then novel neurological disorder in one of his female cases named Auguste D. Institutionalized by her concerned family at the age of 51, Alzheimers first patient died of a progressive dementia just four years later. Although the clinical features of this disease of the aged were long known since ancient times, and often referred to as a senile psychosis, age-related madness or old-timers disease, Alzheimer was probably the first to correlate senile plaque (miliary foci) and neurofibrillary tangle (fibrils) propensity within the association neocortex with disease diagnosis and severity. It is perhaps less well known that Alzheimer also associated cerebrovascular involvement and angiogenesis with his first description of Alzheimers disease neuropathology, features that he termed focal lesions in the endothelium and new vessel formation in the diseased brain . Chapter 2 - Over the last two decades studies of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) have made a significant contribution in helping to elucidate the neurological and cognitive bases for controlled and automatic forms of retrieval from long-term memory. These studies show that AD patients demonstrate severe deficits on tasks that involve controlled processes. In contrast, their performance on tasks involving automatic processes is variable. This article reviews experimental studies that have revealed dissociations between controlled and automatic memory processing in AD, and discusses evidence from functional neuroimaging studies which indicate that different forms of retrieval represent distinct aspects of brain activity. Attention is given to the assumption that memory retrieval reflects the operation of a single form of processing (automatic or controlled). The implications of adopting this assumption are discussed within the context of