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    Levy Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2COL Application

    Part 3, Environmental Report

    Rev. 09-i

    CHAPTER 9ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Title Page

    9.0 ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION......................... 9-1

    9.1 NO-ACTION ALTERNATIVE ........................................................ 9-1

    9.2 ENERGY ALTERNATIVES........................................................... 9-2

    9.2.1 ALTERNATIVES THAT DO NOT REQUIRE NEWGENERATING CAPACITY........................................................... 9-3

    9.2.1.1 Initiating Conservation Measures...................................... 9-39.2.1.2 Reactivating or Extending Service Life of Existing

    Facilities ............................................................................ 9-59.2.1.3 Purchasing Power from Other Utilities or Power

    Generators ........................................................................ 9-59.2.2 ALTERNATIVES THAT REQUIRE NEW GENERATING

    CAPACITY ................................................................................... 9-69.2.2.1 Wind.................................................................................. 9-99.2.2.2 Geothermal ..................................................................... 9-129.2.2.3 Hydropower..................................................................... 9-129.2.2.4 Solar Power .................................................................... 9-139.2.2.5 Wood Waste (and Other Biomass) ................................. 9-169.2.2.6 Municipal Solid Waste..................................................... 9-179.2.2.7 Energy Crops .................................................................. 9-189.2.2.8 Petroleum Liquids (Oil) ................................................... 9-199.2.2.9 Fuel Cells ........................................................................ 9-209.2.2.10 Coal................................................................................. 9-209.2.2.11 Natural Gas..................................................................... 9-219.2.2.12 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle......................... 9-229.2.3 ASSESSMENT OF REASONABLE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

    SOURCES AND SYSTEMS....................................................... 9-239.2.3.1 Coal-Fired Generation .................................................... 9-239.2.3.2 Natural Gas Generation .................................................. 9-269.2.3.3 Combination of Alternatives ............................................ 9-28

    9.2.4 CONCLUSION............................................................................ 9-329.2.5 REFERENCES ........................................................................... 9-33

    9.3 SITE SELECTION PROCESS.................................................... 9-40

    9.3.1 SITE COMPARISON AND SELECTION PROCESS.................. 9-40

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    Levy Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2COL Application

    Part 3, Environmental Report

    Rev. 09-ii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)

    Section Title Page

    9.3.2 PROGRESS ENERGY FLORIDA SITE SELECTIONPROCESS OVERVIEW.............................................................. 9-42

    9.3.2.1 Progress Energy Florida Site Selection Process ............ 9-469.3.3 SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE ALTERNATIVE SITES

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT EVALUATION .............................. 9-619.3.3.1 Crystal River Site ............................................................ 9-629.3.3.2 Dixie Site......................................................................... 9-679.3.3.3 Highlands Site................................................................. 9-719.3.3.4 Putnam Site .................................................................... 9-759.3.3.5 LNP Site.......................................................................... 9-799.3.4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................. 9-81

    9.3.5 REFERENCES ........................................................................... 9-82

    9.4 ALTERNATIVE PLANT AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS...... 9-125

    9.4.1 HEAT DISSIPATION SYSTEMS .............................................. 9-1259.4.1.1 Screening of Alternative Heat Dissipation Systems...... 9-1279.4.1.2 Analysis of Preferred Heat Dissipation Alternative

    Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower................................... 9-1319.4.1.3 Summary of Alternative Heat Dissipation Evaluation.... 9-1369.4.2 CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEMS ......................................... 9-1409.4.2.1 Intake and Discharge Systems ..................................... 9-1429.4.2.2 Water Treatment ........................................................... 9-153

    9.4.3 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS .................................................... 9-1569.4.3.1 Corridor Selection ......................................................... 9-1579.4.3.2 Establishment and Definition the Project Study Area ... 9-1589.4.3.3 Quantitative Evaluation ................................................. 9-1619.4.3.4 Qualitative Evaluation ................................................... 9-1639.4.3.5 Candidate Corridor Evaluation...................................... 9-1639.4.4 PUBLIC OUTREACH................................................................ 9-1669.4.4.1 Utility Search Conferences ........................................... 9-1669.4.4.2 Community Working Groups......................................... 9-1679.4.4.3 Community Outreach .................................................... 9-1679.4.5 REFERENCES ......................................................................... 9-167

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    Levy Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2COL Application

    Part 3, Environmental Report

    Rev. 09-iii

    LIST OF TABLES

    Number Title

    9.2-1 Impacts Comparison Table

    9.2-2 Air Emissions from Alternative Power Generation Facilities

    9.3-1 Process Used for Screening the Region of Interest

    9.3-2 Screening Criteria Used for the Evaluation of Potential Sites

    9.3-3 Criterion Weight Factors Used for the Evaluation of Potential Sites

    9.3-4 Technical Evaluation Screening for Potential Sites

    9.3-5 Summary of Screening Evaluation for Potential Sites

    9.3-6 Screening Criteria Used for the Evaluation of Candidate Sites

    9.3-7 General Technical Evaluation for Candidate Sites

    9.3-8 General Technical Evaluation for Alternative Sites

    9.3-9 Summary of the Alternative Site Studies

    9.3-10 Composite Rating Comparison of Alternative Sites

    9.3-11 State and Federal Threatened and Endangered Species PotentiallyOccurring in Citrus County

    9.3-12 Crystal River Site Minority and Low Income Population

    9.3-13 State and Federal Threatened and Endangered Species PotentiallyOccurring in Dixie County

    9.3-14 Dixie Site Minority and Low Income Population

    9.3-15 State and Federal Threatened and Endangered Species PotentiallyOccurring in Highlands County

    9.3-16 Highlands Site Minority and Low Income Population

    9.3-17 State and Federal Threatened and Endangered Species PotentiallyOccurring in Putnam County

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    Levy Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2COL Application

    Part 3, Environmental Report

    Rev. 09-iv

    LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED)

    Number Title

    9.3-18 Putnam Site Minority and Low Income Population

    9.3-19 Summary Comparison of Alternative Sites

    9.4-1 Summary of Environmental Impacts of the Heat Dissipation SystemAlternatives

    9.4-2 Life Cycle Cost Benefit for Tower Options (Hot Weather Year)

    9.4-3 Preliminary Assessment of Makeup Water Source Alternatives

    9.4-4 Preliminary Assessment of Blowdown Site Discharge Alternatives

    9.4-5 Preliminary Assessment of Makeup and Blowdown RouteAlternatives

    9.4-6 Features Included on a Regional Transmission Corridor ScreeningMap

    9.4-7 Transmission Corridor Qualitative Evaluation Criteria

    9.4-8 LNP to Proposed Citrus Substation Highest Ranking CandidateTransmission Corridors

    9.4-9 LNP to CREC 500-kV Switchyard Highest Ranking CandidateTransmission Corridors

    9.4-10 LNP to Proposed Central Florida South Substation Highest RankingCandidate Transmission Corridors

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    Levy Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2COL Application

    Part 3, Environmental Report

    Rev. 09-v

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

    %g percent of gravity

    C degree Celsius

    F degree Fahrenheit

    AAA American Automobile Association

    ac. acre

    ac/MWe acre per megawatt electric

    ACC acid copper chromate

    AFV Alternative Fuel Vehicle

    AP1000 Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, AP1000 Reactor

    APWRA Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area

    BMP best management practice

    BTA best technology available

    CAAA Clean Air Act Amendment

    CBD Center for Biological Diversity

    CCA chromated copper arsenate

    CCS carbon capture and storage

    CERP Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan

    CF counterflow

    CFBC Cross Florida Barge Canal

    CFR Code of Federal Regulations

    CFS chemical feed system

    CO carbon monoxide

    CO2 carbon dioxide

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    Levy Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2COL Application

    Part 3, Environmental Report

    Rev. 09-vi

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (CONTINUED)

    CO2eq carbon dioxide equivalent

    COL Combined License

    COLA Combined License Application

    CREC Crystal R