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Transcript of Alexander the Great - Weeb · PDF fileaffect Alexander the Great? ... Greek immigrants,...

  • Provide a one word answer

    for Alexanders greatest impact

    on World History:?

    THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: 1. Where was Macedon located? 2. Who was Philip II? 3. How did the death of Philip II

    affect Alexander the Great? 4. List the lands Alexander the

    Great conquered: 5. What happened to Alexanders

    empire after his death? 6. Definition of Hellenism.

    What does this story reveal

    about Alexander the


    In 338 B.C., Philip II, the king of MACEDONIA (an area north of Greece), brought all the Greek city-states under his control. His son, Alexander the Great, went on to conquer most of the Mediterranean world including Persia and Egypt. He founded new cities, some of which he named after himself. Alexander even extended his conquests to the Indus River valley. Although his empire collapsed shortly after his early death, his conquests helped to spread Greek culture throughout the ancient world.

    Alexander was only twenty when his father died. Two years later, Alexander marched eastward with 35,000 soldiers. Alexanders soldiers quickly conquered Asia Minor. They then freed Egypt from Persian rule. Next, Alexander moved east again and conquered Babylon. He continued to move eastward and by 330 B.C., he had defeated all the Persian armies. For four more years, Alexanders tired army moved eastward. They went as far as the Indus River. For the Greeks, this was the end of the known world. Alexander wanted to push on, but his men begged him to turn back. In 323 B.C., Alexander developed a fever in Babylon. Within a few days, the thirty-two year old leader was dead. For 13 years, Alexander ruled. During that time he had changed the world. After his death, his followers created separate kingdoms in Egypt, Persia, and the other areas that Alexander had conquered. These kingdoms often fought each other. But one thing held them together their Greek culture. Throughout the

    Middle East, people adopted Greek customs. Greek immigrants, traditions, and the use of the Greek language spread. As Greek culture spread eastward, it blended with other cultures. This blend of eastern and western cultures is called HELLENISM. The word comes from the Greek word Hellas, which means their own land or Greece. An important new culture emerged. Known as Hellenistic Culture, it was a blend of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences. SO, ALTHOUGH ALEXANDER WAS NOT GREEK, HE KEPT GREEK CULTURE ALIVE AND ALTHOUGH HE DIED

    AT AN EARLY AGE, HE GREATLY INFLUENCED WORLD HISTORY. An Interesting Story about Alexander the Great:

    The story begins with a man bringing a wild horse to Philip II. However, nobody could tame the horse, and Philip grew upset at the man for bringing such an unstable horse to him. Alexander, however, publicly defied his father and claimed that he could handle the horse. Alexander's reaction was viewed by his father as immature, in addition to being disrespectful to all the people that failed to tame the horse, Bucephalus. For that reason, Philip proposed, and Alexander agreed instantly, that if Alexander could ride the "wild" horse, Philip would buy it; on the other hand, if Alexander failed, he would have to pay the price of the horse, which was 13 talents, an enormous sum for a boy of Alexander's age. Alexander apparently noticed that the horse had been shying away from its own shadow, and so he led it gently into the sun, so that its shadow was behind it, all the while stroking it gently and whispering into its ear. Eventually the horse let Alexander mount him, and the 12 year-old Alexander was able to show his equestrian skill to his father and all who were watching. Alexander entered India in 327, encountering some of the toughest fighting of his career in the crossing. He reached the Indus River in 326. None of the Greeks had ever encountered anything to prepare them for India. The terrain, the monsoons, the fierce tribes, all combined with the long years of campaigning to take some of the heart out of the Macedonians.

    Alexander's geographers had assured him that just beyond India was Ocean, the great body of water that completely encircled the world. Most historians believed that Alexander had no idea of the true size of the subcontinent and that he truly believed he need make only one more push to bring the entire eastern world under his dominion.

    Two factors combined to bring Alexander's march to a halt: he began to realize that India was much bigger than he had thought, and a war with an Indian king named Porus showed that India would not fall easily to the Greeks. Porus was powerful both as a man and a king. He stood seven feet tall. He fielded an army that was a match for the Greeks, but Porus' army had an additional advantage: war elephants. DEATH While considering the conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander the Great died of malaria in Babylon, Persia (now Iran), on June 13, 323 B.C. He was just 32 years old. Rhoxana gave birth to his son a few months later. After Alexander died, his empire collapsed and the nations within it battled for power. Over time, the cultures of Greece and the Orient synthesized and thrived as a side effect of Alexander's Empire, becoming part of his legacy and spreading the spirit of Panhellenism. Adapted from:

  • QUICK FACTS NAME: Caesar Augustus OCCUPATION: Emperor


    DEATH DATE: August 19, 14

    PLACE OF BIRTH: Velletri, Italy

    PLACE OF DEATH: Nola, Italy NICKNAME: Octavian

    FULL NAME: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus

    ORIGINALLY: Gaius Octavius

    AKA: Caesar Augustus

    BEST KNOWN FOR Caesar Augustus, or Octavian, became the first emperor of the Roman Empire after Julius Caesar died. The country was peaceful under Augustus's rule.

    PROFILE: Augustus (63 BC - AD 14) Augustus Caesar (63 BCE 14 CE) was the name of the first (and, by all accounts, greatest) emperor of Rome. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. He was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. In 27 BCE the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the illustrious one"), and he was then known as Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus. Owing to the many names the man went by in his life, it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BCE, Octavian when referring to events between 44 and 27 BCE, and Augustus regarding events from 27 BCE to his death in 14 CE. It should be noted, however, that Octavian himself, between the years 44 and 27 BCE, never went by that name, choosing instead to align himself closely with his great uncle by carrying the same name (a decision which prompted Mark Antonys famous accusation, as recorded by Cicero,You, boy, owe everything to your name). After Julius Caesars assassination in March of 44 BCE, Octavian allied himself with Caesars close friend and relative, Mark Antony. Together with another supporter of Caesar, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Antony and Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate in October of 43 BCE. Their first order of business seems to have been the systematic killing of any political rivals and supporters

    of Caesars assassins (though exactly which of the three was most responsible for the killings is disputed by ancient and modern writers alike with some claiming Octavian innocent and others ascribing to him the most bloodshed). Having cleansed Rome of the 'bad blood of their opposition, the SECOND TRIMVIRATE then turned their attention to Caesars assassins. At the Battle of Phillipi in October 42 BCE, the forces of Brutus and Cassius were defeated by those of the Second Triumvirate forcing both assassins to kill themselves. Between 38 and 36 BCE, Octavian and Lepidus battled Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompey Magnus, Julius Caesars great rival) for rule of Rome with Antony lending aid from Egypt. The SECOND TRIUMVIRATE was victorious over Pompeius, and Lepidus, glorying in the triumph and confident of his strength, insulted Octavian by ordering him to leave Sicily, the theatre of operations, with his troops. Octavian, however, offered Lepiduss troops more money than Lepidus could pay and his army defected to Octavian. Lepidus was stripped of all his titles save Pontifex Maximus and the Second Triumvirate came to an end. During this time, however, relations between Octavian and Mark Antony began to deteriorate. In 40 BCE, in an effort to solidify their alliance, Octavian had given his sister, Octavia Minor, in marriage to Antony. Antony, though, had allied himself closely with Cleopatra VII of Egypt (the former lover of Julius Caesar and mother of his son Caesarion) and, in fact, had become her lover. To Octavian, Antonys behavior in the east, both in private, politically and militarily, was intolerable. Among the worst of Antonys offenses was his declaration that Caesarion (son of Caesar and Cleopatra) was the true heir of Julius Caesar, not Octavian. The Senate revoked Antonys consulship and declared war on Cleopatra VII. At the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BCE Octavians forces, under the General Agrippa, defeated the combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra, scattered them (many had already defected to Octavians side before the battle) and pursued the survivors until 1 August 30 BCE when, after the loss of Alexandria, Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves. Octavian had Caesarion strangled (stating that two Caesars are one too many) and Antonys eldest son executed as a possible threat to Rome. Octavian was now the supreme ruler of Rome and all her territories but, in order to keep from making the same mistake his adoptive father had of seem