Alexander the Great Theme: Advances in Warfare Mr. Fitzpatrick
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Transcript of Alexander the Great Theme: Advances in Warfare Mr. Fitzpatrick
Alexander the Great
Theme: Advances in WarfareMr. Fitzpatrick
Philip IIRuled Macedonia from 359-336 B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machineMoved into northern Greece and met little resistance due to the Peloponnesian WarBy 338 he had Greece under his control
Alexander the GreatPhilip intended to use Greece as a launching pad to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before he could begin his planInstead the invasion of Persia would be left for Philips son Alexander who was just 20 when Philip was assassinatedAlexander inherited from his father the most perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army of ancient times.J.F.C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the Great
Warfare in the Age of AlexanderPhalanx: A formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears, developed by Philip II and used by Alexander the Great Bucephalus: Historys most famous horse.Read story from the Blue Book (page 126)Watch tribute.
Warfare in the Age of AlexanderHoplite The main melee warrior of the Macedonian army. Worked mainly in the tight phalanx formation, creating impregnable lines that often left the enemy demoralized.
Hoplites in Action
Warfare in the Age of AlexanderCompanionsAlexanders elite cavalry, the offensive arm of his army, and his elite guard. They would be used in conjunction with the phalanx. The phalanx would fix the enemy in place and then the companion cavalry would attack on the flank. Alexander would lead the charge with his cavalry, normally in a wedge formation. These troops would also protect the flanks of the Macedonian line during battle.
Warfare in the Age of AlexanderSieges involved the surrounding and blockading of a town or fortress by an army trying to capture it. A variety of weapons were built to hurl projectiles over city walls, scale or batter the walls, and transport soldiers over them.Siege TowerBattering Ram
TyreOld city on the mainland was abandonedNew city built on an island two miles long and separated from the coast by a half mile channelWalls were 150 feet highHad two harbors (Sidonian and Egyptian)Alexander originally had no ships so he built a mole across the channel
TyreMole was designed to be 200 feet wide and was built by driving piles into the bottom and filling in the space with stones, earth, and woodEntire trees --- branches, leaves, and all - were thrown beside the piles to serve as a breakwallStone was hauled in from the old cityA city and a forest were exhausted to build this wonderful mole.Theodore Dodge, Alexander, 330.Alexanders original mole has grown over the centuries and is now a broad landbridge with roads and buildings on it.
The Siege of TyrePart 1- Alexanders Plan Messengers killedPart 2 Alexander sets an examplePart 3 - Land bridge beginsPart 4Part 5 Ship protected catapult towersPart 6 The Finally
TyreAfter a seven month siege, Tyre fell8,000 Tyrians were killed in the fighting2,000 more were hung afterwards400 Macedonians were killed in the siege and just 20 in the assault
Battle of IssusDarius IIIAlexanderAlexander wins and Darius turns and runs away.
Gaugamela (Arbela)At Issus, Alexander captured Darius family and was holding them hostage but treating them wellDarius needed to rescue themSeal of King Darius
Gaugamela (Arbela)Darius had assembled a huge army from all the Persian nationalitiesEstimates range from 200,000 to a million infantry and 45,000 to 100,000 cavalry200 scythed chariots15 elephantsAlexander had about 40,000 menHe wanted to capture Darius to replace him as king of Persia
Darius III, King of Persia336-330 B.C.
GaugamelaAlexander Psyches his men upThe End of the Battle
After Gaugamela Darius ran away, AGAIN!!!His escape frustrated Alexander because it prevented him from full claim to being king of PersiaEventually Darius followers assassinated himAs Alexander became king of Persia and continued to advance east, he took on an increasingly Eastern attitude
The End of the Empire"The Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxanna" by Ishmail Parbury AlexanderMarried Roxanna and had his men also intermarryAdopted Eastern dress and habitsPublicly insisted upon his descent from the godsBegan giving key positions to PersiansThe Macedonians were tired of campaigning and resented the changes in Alexanders behavior and become mutinousAlexander died in June 323, perhaps as a result of poisoning, perhaps Malaria
After AlexanderAfter Alexander died, his generals jockeyed for power and by 275 they had divided up his kingdom into three large statesAntigonus took Greece and MacedonPtolemy took EgyptSeleuces took the former Achaemenid empireThe period of Alexander and his successors is called the Hellenistic period to reflect the broad influence of Greek culture beyond Greeces borders
Alexanders LegacyHe spread Western (Greek) Culture all over the known world.