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Alexander the Great
Ruler of the World
M Irfan Ashraf 13061513-059 Salman Tufail 13061513-025Adnan Ahmad 13061513-046M Tayyab 13061513-022
Why the Great?
In ten years, Alexander of Macedonia created the largest empire in the world up to that timeAlexander spread Greek culture, ensuring cultural diffusion and the survival of the qualities of classical Greece
Born in Pella, MacedoniaTutored by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle
His father, Philip, was king of Macedonia, and had conquered the Greek city states during his 27 year reign
Philip was murdered in 336 B.C. by an assassinmaybe hired by his wife, OlympiaSo Alexander was only 20when he became king of Macedonia
Securing his fathers empire
Alexander squelched rebellions in the northern regions to the Danube RiverIn the process of reconquering the Greek city states, his forces destroyed Thebes, massacring all, including women and children
Expanding the Empire
Alexanders forces of over 40,000 crossed at the Dardanelles into Asia, where he declared that the whole of Asia would be won by the spear
The Gordian Knot: the legend behind the ancient knot was that the man who could untie it was destined to rule the entire world.
Alexander simply slashed the knot with his sword and unraveled it.
The Gordian Knot
Defeating Darius of Persia
#1: Alexanders forced dispatched the Persian army, losing only 110 men (legend)#2: Again Alexander was victorious, and Darius was forced to flee, abandoning is mother, wife and children to Alexander
Major cities in Asia Minor and along the Phoenician coast surrendered to Alexander
Alexander proceeded to Egypt, where he established the city of Alexandria and was made pharaoh
#3: Yet again, Alexanders forces defeated Darius, this time in Mesopotamia
Alexander was proclaimed king of Persia and Dariuss royal city and palace were burned to the ground
Again, Darius fled Alexander pursued
When Darius was found murdered by his own men, Alexander executed the assassins and gave Darius a royal funeral
Ruins of Persepolis
While in Egypt, Alexander had visited the temple of Amon-RaThe oracle proclaimed that Alexander was the divine son of Amon-Ra and destined to rule the worldConflicts arose with his Greek soldiers as he adopted Persian dress & demanded to be recognized as a god
The limits of expansion
In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into IndiaAs he conquered regions he allowed rulers to continue to govern in his name
In India, Alexanders horse was killed
'O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.'
Philip to Alexander (Plutarch, Alexander)
Alexander on his favorite horse, Bucephalus
He mourned his loss and named a city in his honor
At the Indus, the Macedonians rebelled and refused to go any fartherThe forces travelled down the Indus and began the arduous journey back to Mesopotamia
His best friend, Hephaestion, died of a fever; to console himself, Alexander led a ferocious military campaign and went on a drinking binge
Securing a legacy
Alexander made Babylonia the capital of his EmpireHe married one of Darius daughters and encouraged 10,000 of his soldiers to take Persian wivesHe died the following year at 33 before he could produce an heir and his kingdom was divided among 3 of his generals
The mystery of Alexanders death
Alexander died of a fever at 33 but why?Plutarch reports that he was had been plagued by several bad omens Some others from the time claimed Alexander was poisoned during the drinking binge
Alexander the Great
The Peloponnesian War:A Big Fat Greek Civil War
In 431 B.C. the Spartans got tired of the arrogance of Athens, especially after they started building walls around their city. Spartans fought better on land, Athens fought better at sea so the battles lasted a long time. Sparta eventually won when the Persians joined to help against Athens, made Athens tear down their walls.
Macedonia Makes a Move
After the Persian War and Peloponnesian War, Greece was very week and distracted.Phillip II, King of Macedonia took the opportunity to take over Greece (except Sparta) and then attack Persia.Great General, expert at using the phalanx.Became king at only 23
Getting to Greece
338 BC: Phillip and the Macedonians defeat the Greek City States and Unify Greece.Governments remained independence, ruling themselves.
Became King of Macedonia at age 20 after Phillip died of poisoning (suspiciously).Killed all others who could beat him to the throne.Wanted to be like warriors he studied from the blind poet, Homer.Student of Aristotle who taught him about Greek culture. .Determined to outdo his father and spread Greek culture.Believed he descended from Hercules and Achilles.
Alexanders Three Point Plan
Alexander wanted to rule the world, uniting different cultures under one ruler.How would he do this?Spread Greek culture and ideas, basically make everyone Greek.Make himself a god to inspire loyalty.Respect people he conquered and adopt their cultures in addition to Greece.
Born to Be a Leader
Alexander was an excellent military leader, men were very loyal to him.Led from the front of his men.Ate and drank with his men.First one to climb walls into a city.Soldiers would follow him happily into battle.
By conquering the Persians, Alexander could the unite Greeks against a common enemy. By 334 he freed all Greek city states from Persia. 332: Invaded Ancient Egypt, a Persian territory.Was welcomed as a liberator.Crowned as a pharaoh/godFounded the city of Alexandria and a huge library on the Nile.330 B.C.E: Conquered the Persian Empire.
The Library at Alexandria
Facts about the library
Dedicated to the Greek Muses of Inspiration.Contained a Zoo, botanical gardens, and a restaurant.Included over 500,000 papyrus scrolls.Became a center of advanced Greek learning.
Spreading Civilization By the Sword
As Alexanders empire spread, so did the Greek culture.Alexander passed the ideas and philosophies of Aristotle on to the world. Sent samples of plants and animals back to his tutor to study. Encouraged his soldiers to marry foreign girls so that the Greek culture would spread.
The Hellenistic Heyday
Alexanders conquests led to the combination of many cultures.This time period of combined cultural advances under Alexander was called the Hellenistic Era.Hellas in Greek means land. So all of this was considered Greek landGreek + Egyptian + Indian + Persian = Hellenistic CulturePractices of other cultures were adopted by Greeks, like monotheistic religions.
Alexanders conquests spread the classical Greek ideas such as democracy and geometry out into the world.Cities conquered were redesigned in Greek style.Greek soldiers married foreign girls to blend the culturesAlexander tried to set an example by marrying a Persian princess, wearing Persian clothes, worshiping Egyptian gods, etc.
The End of Alexander
324: After reaching India, Alexanders soldiers were too tired and refused to go on.Age 33, Alexander died of swamp fever and alcoholism.After his death, Alexanders generals divided his empire into three pieces: Egypt, Greece, and Asia.He was buried in Alexandria, but his body was lost after being burned.
What if the Greeks had not united with Sparta during the Persian War?What if Persia had won the War?What if there had been no Greek Golden Age?What if there had been no Aristotle?What if there had been no Alexander the Great?What would we have without Greece?
Alexander the Great
Battle of Issus
In the autumn of 333 BC, the Macedonian army's encountered the Persian forces under the command of King Darius III himself at a mountain pass at Issus in northwestern Syria. 30,000 Greeks again formed a sizable addition to the Darius' army as elite fighters and were positioned directly against the Macedonian phalanx. Describing the atmosphere before a battle, the Roman historian Curtius explained how Alexander raised the morale of the Macedonians, Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians in his army, one at the time
Riding to the front line he (Alexander the Great) named the soldiers and they responded from spot to spot where they were lined up. The Macedonians, who had won so many battles in Europe and set off to invade Asia ... got encouragement from him - he reminded them of their permanent values. They were the world's liberators and one day they would pass the frontiers set by Hercules and Father Liber. They would subdue all races on Earth. Bactria and India would become Macedonian provinces. Getting closer to the Greeks, he reminded them that those were the people (the Persians on the other side) who provoked war with Greece, ...
Darius's army greatly outnumbered the Macedonians, but the Battle of Issus ended in a big victory for Alexander. Ten's of thousands of Persians, Greeks, and other Asiatic soldiers were killed and king Darius fled in panic before the Macedonian phalanx, abandoning his mother, wife, and children behind. A