Alexander the Great and Hellenistic Culture. Alexander the Great ï¶ Macedonia was a...
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Alexander the Great and Hellenistic Culture
Alexander the Great and Hellenistic CultureAlexander the GreatMacedonia was a powerful kingdom to the north of the Greek city-statesPhilip II reorganized the Macedonian army and adopted the phalanx systemConquered all of the major Greek city-states except Sparta and became the new leader of Greece in 338 BC, he was assassinated in 336 BCAfter his death, his son Alexander came to the throne (356-323 BC) - Alexander was a great military leader and strategist
Reestablished control in Greece due to a revoltThebes resisted and Alexander burned down the city and sold all the people into slaveryDecided to fulfill his fathers dream of conquering the Persian EmpireDestroyed the Persian army and emperor Darius III fled he was later murdered by one of his own officersAfter this victory, Alexander led his army deeper into AsiaWent and conquered parts of IndiaWhen his army refused to go any further, Alexander agreed to go home
On his way back home, Alexander fell ill in the city of Babylon and died a few days laterHe left no heir, so his generals began to fight for controlIn the end the empire was divided among the three most powerful generalsMacedonia and Greece, Persian Empire, and EgyptLegacy of AlexanderCreated new cities, most of them named AlexandriaBuilt Alexandria as the Greek capital of Egypt important city which had a famous libraryAlexander envisioned a world in which many cultures would live together
Made a conscious effort to bring people and ideas from different places togetherAlexander married two Persian princessesEncouraged Greeks to move to the Alexandria citiesCreated a new type of cultureBlended elements of Greek civilization with ideas from Persia, Egypt, and Central AsiaCreated the Hellenistic EraHellenistic means to imitate the Greeks Expansion of Greek language and ideas to other parts of the worldMassive spread of Greek colonists to Asia
Hellenistic Achievements - philosophersInterest in Greek philosophyCynicism school of philosophy = cynics rejected ideas of pleasure and wealthInstead people should live according to natureEpicureans = people should seek out pleasure and avoid painStoicism great emphasis on reason, self-discipline, and emotional controlStoics believed people should identify their proper role in society and strive to fulfill that role
Hellenistic Achievements Science and MathEuclid = formulated many of the ideas about geometry that are still used and learned todayEratosthenes = determined the world was round and calculated its circumference Archimedes of Syracuse = one of the greatest inventors of the ancient worldEstablished the value of pi, developed a compound pulley that could lift heavy loads, and used levers and pulleys to lift a ship out of the waterAlexanders empire fell apart soon after his death, and the different Hellenistic kingdoms were shortly conquered by the Romans