Alexander the Great
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Alexander the GreatPhillip II became king of Macedonia and targeted Greece for an invasion.
PHILIP IISituation changed in 359 BC Philip II *Educated in Thebes *Greek military techniques*Skillful politician*Genius at sizing up a situation *Greek city-states would be easy pickings
Why do you think Phlip wanted to conquer Greece?MACEDONIAN ADVANTAGESNo single city-state was strong enough to resist The Macedonian army had become a formidable fighting forceheavily armed cavalry units, light cavalry and hoplite infantry More mobile and more effective than anything the Greeks hadAlso possessed strong esprit-de-corps
Phillip beat Athens, and the rest of Greece agreed to make him their leader after seeing Athenss defeat.
Phillip was a brilliant military leader.His soldiers fought as a phalanx with spears that were longer than the Greeks.
What makes a phalanx effective?
Philip also had a cavalry and archers supporting the phalanx.
When Phillip died, his throne and his plans were passed on to his 20-year-old son, Alexander.
ALEXANDER CREATES AN ARMYCarry out his fathers planned invasion of Persian Empire
Attacked Thebes in 335 and burned it to the ground
Slaughtered entire population or sold them into slavery
Taught Greeks a lesson and Greek recruitment into his army skyrocketed
had final force of 30,000 soldiers and 5000 horsemen
Alexander began his rule by ending the revolt in Thebes, setting an example to the Greeks not to rebel.
Alexander set out to build an empire.He defeated the Persians in the battle of Issus, then marched to Egypt.
In 333 BC, while wintering at Gordium, Alexander the Great attempted to untie the Gordium knot. When he could find no end to the knot, to unbind it, he sliced it in half with a stroke of his sword.
. Legend says that whoever untied the knot would rule all of Asia.
He then set out to build an empire and earned the name Alexander the Great.He went on to conquer Egypt and was crowned pharaoh without a fight.
Alexander then defeated Persia and became the ruler of the Persian Empire.
How did Alexander defeat Darius at Gaugemela?Macedonian Phalanx
BallistaAncient fieldpiece, operated on the principle of tension. Simply a magnified crossbow stretched by a windlass. The projectile was usually a spear.
END OF THE PERSIAN EMPIREThe Persians tried to block Alexander but were beaten again
Darius was on the run, fleeing to Persepolis
Alexander attacks and destroys the city
Alexander finally caught Darius and his army at Ecbatana in July 330 BC
Darius is killed by his own men as Alexander approaches
Persian Empire collapses
Alexander established cities throughout his empire.
TO THE EDGE OF THE WORLDEast through Armenia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Crossed the Indus River into Indiaterrible battles in India but kept moving eastAt the Hyphasis River, his men refused to move any furtherSimply worn out and homesickAlexander gave in and agreed to return home
Alexander wanted to push into India, but his troops were exhausted and refused to go. He began the march home, but died from sickness before making it back to Greece.
Alexander the Greats Empire
Describe the distance covered by Alexanders empire.
Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe, Asia, and Egypt.
DEATH OF ALEXANDERIn June 323, Alexander died at the age of 32 In the midst of planning the invasion of Arabia
Exact cause of death is unknown
Maybe pneumonia, malaria, alcoholic poisoning, or food poisoning
No one will ever know for sure
What might have happened if Alexander had lived?After Alexander died, his generals fought for power and divided the empire among themselves.
What happened to Alexanders empire after he died?LEGACYBrilliant general and leaderMajor contribution was the destruction of the Persian EmpireBrought Greek culture into the Middle East weakness was lack of concern for administrative mattersLiked to conquerLiked to fight, not governEmpire died with him as a resultVirtually guaranteed by absence of any sort of centralized administrative structure
Spreading Greek Culture
Alexanders empire was the largest the world had ever seen.
An admirer of Greek culture, he worked to spread it throughout his empire.Alexander encouraged Greek settlers to move to the new cities he conquered.
These settlers passed along the language and culture of Greece.
Alexander also encouraged people to keep their own culture, so Greek and native customs blended. Historians call the culture Hellenistic, or Greek-like.
Egypt, especially Alexandria, became a great cultural center.
It is a lovely thing to live with courage, and to die leaving an everlasting fame.How did Alexander spread Greek culture? What is the name for this blended culture?