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  • 1. Collapse of the Roman and HanEmpiresHistorical Comparisons

2. Long-Distance Travel in the AncientWorld Lack of police enforcement outside ofestablished settlements Changed in classical period Improvement of infrastructure Development of empires 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.2All Rights Reserved. 3. Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greekcolonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintainopen routes2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3 All Rights Reserved. 4. The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Romanempire Sea lanes and maritime trade as well 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.4All Rights Reserved. 5. The Silk Roads, 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E.2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5 All Rights Reserved. 6. Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments Trade done in stages Sea trade Malay and Indian mariners Persian, Egyptian, Greek 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.6All Rights Reserved. 7. Cultural Trade: Buddhism andHinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silkroutes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote developmentof monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silkroads, 200 B.C.E.-1000 C.E.2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7 All Rights Reserved. 8. The Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, andChristianity, 200 B.C.E.-400 C.E. 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.8All Rights Reserved. 9. The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographicsreasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: economic slowdown, move to regionalself-sufficiency 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.9All Rights Reserved. 10. Epidemics in the Han and RomanEmpires 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.10All Rights Reserved. 11. Internal Decay of the Han State Court intrigue Problem of land distribution Large landholders develop private armies Epidemics Peasant rebellions 184 C.E., Yellow Turban uprising 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.11All Rights Reserved. 12. Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples Social and cultural changes to a Chinese wayof life Adapted to the Chinese environment Agriculture Adoption of Chinesenames, dress, intermarriage2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 12 All Rights Reserved. 13. Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism Disintegration of political order casts doubt onConfucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.13All Rights Reserved. 14. Fall of the Roman Empire:Internal Factors The barracks emperors 235-284 C.E., twenty-six claimants to thethrone, all but one killed in power struggles Epidemics Disintegration of imperial economy in favor oflocal and regional self-sufficient economies2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14 All Rights Reserved. 15. Diocletian (r. 284-305 C.E.) Divided empire into two administrativedistricts Co-emperors, dual lieutenants Tetrarchs Currency, budget reform Relative stability disappears after Diocletiansdeath, civil war follows Constantine emerges victorious2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 15 All Rights Reserved. 16. Fall of the Roman Empire:External Factors Visigoths, influenced by Romanlaw, Christianity Formerly buffer states for Roman empire Attacked by Huns under Attila in fifth centuryC.E. Massive migration of Germanic peoples intoRoman empire Sacked Rome in 410 C.E., establishedGermanic emperor in 476 C.E. 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.16All Rights Reserved. 17. Germanic Invasions and the Fall of theWestern Roman Empire, 450-476 C.E. 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.17All Rights Reserved. 18. Cultural Change in the Roman Empire Growth of Christianity Constantines vision, 312 C.E. Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christianpractice Converts to Christianity 380 C.E., Emperor Theodosius proclaimsChristianity official religion of Roman empire 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.18All Rights Reserved. 19. The Fall of RomeFor centuries after the rule of its firstemperor, begun in 27 B.C., the Roman Empirewas the most powerful state in the ancientworld. Rome continued to expand to include 3continents: Asia, Europe, and Africa. 20. Many factors cause the decline ofRomeBy the second century, the Roman Empire seemedindestructible. Yet, by the end of the fifth century ithad collapsed. Rome did not fall instantly.Instead the empire went through a longslow decline. Many conditions caused the fall ofRome including internal (inside) and external(outside) forces. 21. The Fall of RomeInternal ForcesExternal Forces3 Main Categories:- Political- Invaders, also called- Economicbarbarians- Social 22. Political Corruption in government Plebeians had no rights Empire too large to control Emperors plotted against each other for control instead of uniting Civil wars Government lost loyalty as patricians moved to villas and stopped caring about government Army deteriorates 23. Economic Slavery Unemployment Welfare system Taxation Forced labor Decrease in trade 24. Social Christianity Loss of citizens confidence and loyalty Population declines Hierarchical classes Too many cultures Bread and circuses Plague 25. External ForcesInvaders, also called barbarians, began to invade inthe 3rd century. Germanic tribes from northernEurope crossed the Roman frontier and invadedGreece, Italy, Spain, and coastal areas of Asia Minor.The warmer climate, rich farmlands, and wealth ofthe Roman lands attracted the Germanic tribes. Bythe 5th century, the Roman Empire was overrun bybarbarians. 26. Diocletian 27. Constantine 28. Attila the Hun 29. The Fall of RomeOnce the Roman army could no longer defendits borders, Germanic tribes began pouringinto Europe. One Roman province fell afteranother. In 476 A.D., the Western Romanemperor was overthrown. Odoacer was thenproclaimed king of Italy. The ancient worldwas drawing to a close.