Alexander and Hellenistic Greece - Mr. Greece: ... – Death of Alexander ......

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Transcript of Alexander and Hellenistic Greece - Mr. Greece: ... – Death of Alexander ......

  • Alexander and Hellenistic GreeceAlexander and Hellenistic Greece

  • Key Terms to RememberKey Terms to Remember

    CynicsCynics EpicureansEpicureans Gordian KnotGordian Knot HellenisticHellenistic ImperiumImperium SkepticsSkeptics StoicsStoics

  • Hellenistic Greece: OverviewHellenistic Greece: Overview The Rise of MacedoniaThe Rise of Macedonia

    Macedonia: Not a Greek Macedonia: Not a Greek polispolis, but King Philip greatly , but King Philip greatly admires Greek cultureadmires Greek culture

    Philip steps into chaotic situation to conquer GreecePhilip steps into chaotic situation to conquer Greece Plans to launch an invasion of PersiaPlans to launch an invasion of Persia

    Alexander Conquers the WorldAlexander Conquers the World Alexander seeks to spread Greek culture, Alexander seeks to spread Greek culture, imperiumimperium

    throughout Persian Empirethroughout Persian Empire Greeks sweep through Persia and Egypt, invade India Greeks sweep through Persia and Egypt, invade India

    before turning back aroundbefore turning back around The Hellenistic EmpireThe Hellenistic Empire

    Mixture of Greek and Middle Eastern culturesMixture of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures Assimilation of nonAssimilation of non--Greeks into Greek EmpireGreeks into Greek Empire

    The End of the AdventureThe End of the Adventure Death of AlexanderDeath of Alexander Inheritances; division of Empire; legaciesInheritances; division of Empire; legacies

  • The Greek Situation, ca. 340 BCEThe Greek Situation, ca. 340 BCE

  • Alexander of MacedonAlexander of Macedon

    Studied with AristotleStudied with Aristotle Greatly admired Greatly admired

    Greek cultureGreek culture Ascended throne of Ascended throne of

    Macedon/Greece after Macedon/Greece after fatherfathers assassinations assassination

    Like father: wants to Like father: wants to conquer Persiaconquer Persia

    Unlike father: wants Unlike father: wants moremore

    Greek coin with likeness of Alexander I; Greek coin with likeness of Alexander I; the odd horns would later cause him to the odd horns would later cause him to be called a demon in the Qube called a demon in the Quranran

  • A Good StartA Good Start

    The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BCEThe Battle of the Granicus, 334 BCE

    Pella: Macedonian Pella: Macedonian Greek capital cityGreek capital city

  • MovinMovin onon

    330 B.C.E.: Takes Persepolis, defeats Persians330 B.C.E.: Takes Persepolis, defeats Persians 329 B.C.E.: Invades Hindu Kush, land of Indians329 B.C.E.: Invades Hindu Kush, land of Indians 327 B.C.E.: Conquers Bactria, marries Roxane327 B.C.E.: Conquers Bactria, marries Roxane 326 B.C.E.: Forward march halted by troop mutiny326 B.C.E.: Forward march halted by troop mutiny

  • Alexander the Greats EmpireAlexander the Greats Empire

  • Building Greek Cities in the EastBuilding Greek Cities in the East

  • Trade in the Hellenistic WorldTrade in the Hellenistic World

  • Marrying Greek and Eastern Marrying Greek and Eastern culturescultures literallyliterally

    Alexander set Alexander set precedent for precedent for intermarrying with intermarrying with conquered peoples conquered peoples with 327 B.C.E. with 327 B.C.E. marriage to Roxane marriage to Roxane (at left)(at left)

    February 324 B.C.E.: February 324 B.C.E.: Mass wedding of 91 Mass wedding of 91 Greek officers, 9,000 Greek officers, 9,000 soldiers to local soldiers to local womenwomen

  • Alexandria, Egypt Center of all Hellenistic culture.

    Thriving commerce

    Mixture of eastern/western cultures melded

  • Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria Hellenism

    A new Hellenistic culture emerged over time Added Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences

    Alexandria was the Hellenistic capital International trade flourished there

    Magnificent monuments dominated the city Museum of Alexandria

    Alexandrian Library

  • Hellenistic Systems of ThoughtHellenistic Systems of Thought

    NameName SkepticsSkeptics EpicureansEpicureans StoicsStoics

    Can Can humans humans know know truth?truth?

    No.No. No.No. No.No.

    What to What to do?do?

    Accept it, donAccept it, dont t try to change try to change things. things.

    Enjoy Enjoy yourselfyourselfdrink, drink, sex, food, sex, food, entertainment.entertainment.

    Accept it, but Accept it, but never stop never stop trying to achieve trying to achieve harmony.harmony.

  • Hellenistic Philosophy

    Skeptics or Cynics (Diogenes) ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries citizens of the world live a humble, simple life

    Stoicism (Zeno) Live virtuously in harmony Human desires, power, $$$ = dangerous!

    Epicureanism (Epicurus) Main goal of humans is to achieve harmony of body/mind You dont have to give up worldly pleasuresenjoy them

    in moderation! Eat, drink & be merry!

  • Hellenistic Science & Tech

    Astronomy: Aristarchus v. Ptolemy Aristarchus = earth is 300x larger than Earth &

    heliocentric theory

    Ptolemy = geocentric theory

    Eratosthenes = circumference of earth is between 28-29,000 mi. Actual circumference is 24,860!

  • Ptolemaic View of the UniversePtolemaic View of the Universe

  • Hellenistic Mathematics

    Geometry: Euclid The Elements

    Physics: Archimedes 3.14..... Importance?

    Law of the lever

    Compound pulley

  • Hellenistic Art Qualities: Emotion & motion

    vs.

  • Hellenistic Art

    vs.

  • The Death of AlexanderThe Death of Alexander

    Alexander died in 323 B.C.E., just as he was getting ready to Alexander died in 323 B.C.E., just as he was getting ready to invade Arabia and then Carthage.invade Arabia and then Carthage.

    Causes are unclear Causes are unclear poison? Malaria? Alcoholism?poison? Malaria? Alcoholism? Probably at least indirectly result of campaigning for thirteen Probably at least indirectly result of campaigning for thirteen

    straight years.straight years.

  • The CarvingThe Carving--up of Alexanderup of Alexanders Empires Empire

    AntigonusAntigonus

    SeleucusSeleucusPtolemyPtolemy

    IndiaIndia

  • Legacies of Hellenistic Empire; Legacies of Hellenistic Empire; SummarySummary

    AlexanderAlexanders empire the next inheritor of s empire the next inheritor of ancient Middle Eastern empiresancient Middle Eastern empires

    But fuses Greek and Eastern influences to But fuses Greek and Eastern influences to create a unique culturecreate a unique culture

    Dream of conquering Dream of conquering known worldknown world taken taken up by Romansup by Romans

    Divided Hellenistic successor kingdoms not Divided Hellenistic successor kingdoms not strong enough to resist Roman advancestrong enough to resist Roman advance

  • The Known World 3c B.C.E.The Known World 3c B.C.E.