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Transcript of Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Germany February .Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Germany...

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    Written by: under supervision of:Cahyandito Martha-Fani Dr. Andreas Matzarakis

    Albert-Ludwigs-University FreiburgGermany

    February 2001

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    I INTRODUCTION 5II Air QUALITY in Jakarta

    ii.1 ABOUT JAKARTAII.1.1 A DIVERSE HISTORY AND LANDSCAPE.................................................. 6

    II.1.2 A Fast-growing City.................................................................................. 6II.1.3 Cost of Growth.......................................................................................... 7II.1.4 Jakarta Sprawl........................................................................................... 7II.1.5 JABOTABEK........................................................................................... 8

    II.2 Air Pollution in Jakarta........................................................................ 11II.2.1 General acknowledgement of air pollution

    II.2.1.1 Pollutants in the Air..................................................................... 11II.2.1.1.1 Carbon monoxide..................................................... . 11II.2.1.1.2 Sulfur dioxide.......................................................... 12II.2.1.1.3 Nitrogen dioxide...................................................... 13II.2.1.1.4 Particles................................................................... 13II.2.1.1.5 Urban Haze.......................................................... 14II.2.1.1.6 Photochemical smog............................................. 14II.2.1.1.7 Ozone...................................................................... 14II.2.1.2 Trends............................................................................................. 16II.2.1.3 Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter.................................. 16

    II.2.2 Present Air Quality in Jakarta......................................................................... 17III Measuring Jakartas Air Quality

    III.1 Measurement by BAPEDAL and PCI ProjectIII.1.1 Perspective............................................................................................. 19III.1.2 Technique of Measurement................................................................... 20III.1.3 Results................................................................................................... 21

    III.2 Measurement by BMG (Meteorological and Geophysics Agency of Indonesia)III.2.1 Perspective.................................................................................................... 22

    III.2.2 Technique of Measurement........................................................................... 23

    III.2.3 Results........................................................................................................... 23

    III.3 Measurement by LIPI (The Indonesian Institute of Science) and NEDO (The Japan New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)III.3.1 Perspective.................................................................................................... 24III.3.2 Technique of Measurement........................................................................... 25

    III.3.2.1 Mie Scattering Lidar System........................................................ 25III.3.2.2 Differential Absorption Lidar System.......................................... 25III.3.2.3 Central Data Processing System................................................... 26III.3.3 Results............................................................................................. 26

    IV PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF AIR POLLUTION IN JAKARTA

    IV.1 Perspective...............................................................................................................29IV.2 Technique of Measurement..................................................................................... 30IV.3 Public Health Implications...................................................................................... 31

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    IV.3.1 Survey............................................................................................................. 31

    IV.3.2 Risk Analysis.................................................................................................. 32

    V Management of Air Pollution in Jakarta 33

    V.1 Blue Sky Program.................................................................................................... 34V.2 1 Million Trees Campaign....................................................................................... 36V.3 1 Million Parks Campaign........................................................................................36V.4 Improvement of Bus Management System........................................................... 37VI Conclusion 40VII REFERENCES 42

    Appendix

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    LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURESLIST OF TABLES

    Table 1: The Population Growth in JABOTABEK 1960-1990............................. 10Table 2: Relationship between Ambient CO Concentrations, Exposure Time and

    Levels of COHb........................................................................................... 12

    Table 3: CO Concentrations required to reach 4% COHb Levels............................. 12

    Table 4: Major Pollutants in the Air........................................................................ 15Table 5: Current Ambient Air Quality Standards in Selected Countries................. 16Table 6: EPA-PSI-System for TPM, PM10, PM2.5

    (24 hour Average Concentration). 17

    Table 7: Number of Motor Vehicles in Jakarta.................................................... 18

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1: The JABOTABEK Region........................................................................ 9

    Figure 2: The Population Growth in JABOTABEK 1960-1990............................ 10Figure 3: Total Suspended Particulates in Big Cities in Asia................................. 18Figure 4: ANSTO Particle Samplers on the Rooftop of the JICA Building in Jakarta.21

    Figure 5: PM10 and PM2.5 Particle Concentrations measured at JICA Building

    in Jakarta...................................................................................................... 22

    Figure 6: Regional Ambient Air Monitoring............................................................. 23

    Figure 7: Map showing the three Lidar Locations in the Jakarta Region................... 25

    Figure 8: Block Diagram of the Central Data Processing System............................. 26

    Figure 9: Temporal Variation of the Vertical Profile of Aerosols from

    September 25 to 27, 1997........................................................................... 27

    Figure 10: Scattering Ratio derived from the Lidar Data............................................. 28

    Figure 11: Simplified Spatial Structure of Aerosol Distribution

    extracted from the Lidar Profiles at three locations..................................... 29

    Figure 12: Epidemiological Model for Environmental Pollution and Health............... 30

    Figure 13: Emission Control for Motor Vehicle........................................................... 35

    Figure 14: Growth of Vehicle Trips.............................................................................. 39

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    I INTRODUCTION

    Clean air is a basic condition for health. Health is at issue especially with regard to

    ozone and particulate matter. Clean air is necessary for healthy environment and for

    maintaining the biodiversity. But there is always a condition that we actually do not want it to

    exist to our air, which called air pollution. Air pollution aggravates respiratory problems, and

    leads to an increase in sickness absenteeism, an increase in the use of health care services

    more medication and hospital admissions and even to an increase in premature mortality.

    These are indications that air pollution is one of the contributing factors to the development of

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an increase in the number of people with these

    problems, for example, through chronic effects on the respiratory system and through

    interaction with the bodys immune system (DE BOER, 1998).

    Air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, is a major environmental health problem

    affecting developed and developing countries alike. It comes from sources of dust, gases, and

    smoke, and is generated mainly by human activities but also naturally. When inhaled, air

    pollutants affect the lung and respiratory tract but can also be taken up and transported by the

    blood stream throughout the body. Through deposition in the environment, air pollutants can

    also contaminate food and water (WHO, 2000).

    Indoor air pollutants are an even greater threat to the health of millions. Some 2,000

    million people throughout the world, use coal and biomass materials (cow dung, crop residues

    and grass) as fuel for heating and cooking. It is a major source of indoor pollution. The

    domestic burning of these fuels is an inefficient process that produces many pollutants, some

    of which may be carcinogenic. The problems are worsened in areas where people spend most

    of their time indoors. The greatest threat in this case is to women and children living in

    poverty. Even today, homes of the poor in developing countries are dangerous, unhealthy

    places a rule of thumb states that a pollutant released indoors is 1000 times more likely to

    reach peoples lungs than a pollutant released outdoors (WHO, 2000).

    Coal burning for heating and cooking in developing countries results in indoor parti