Alanna Rudolph, Rachel Werner, Natalie Thompson Period 4

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Slide 2 Alanna Rudolph, Rachel Werner, Natalie Thompson Period 4 Slide 3 What is Romanticism? Artistic and intellectual movement Characteristics: Nature Individual expression or emotion Rebellion against traditional social rules Slide 4 Who were the Romantics? Washington Irving James Fennimore Cooper William Cullen Bryant Slide 5 Washington Irving Lived from 1783-1859 New York writer American author, short story writer, poet, travel book writer, biographer, and columnist Irvings career started in journals and newspapers (1802-1803) Contributed to the Morning Chronicle Edited by brother Peter Slide 6 Washington Irving cont. Turned fiction writer under the advice of the famed Scottish author, Walter Scott Began writing collection of travel stories and observations of English life through an American Point of view Began gathering folk tales which he turned into short stories of an American character such as Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Slide 7 Washington Irving cont. 1819- published the entire collection of writings in The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon Very popular, one of the first American authors to gain international fame He wrote other sketch books on the western frontier as well as biographies History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828) and The Life of George Washington (1855) Named after George Washington Slide 8 Washington Irving cont. Many personal tragedies: Fianc Matilda Hoffman died of tuberculosis (1809) Mother died (1815) After mothers death moved to Europe 1815-1832 Had romantic relationship with Mary Shelley Settled in Spain Slide 9 Washington Irving cont. Worked for the U.S. Embassy in Madrid for financial reasons (1826-1829) Irving was secretary to the American Legation under Martin Van Buren (1829-1832) Returned to American in 1832 with international fame Built Sunnyside Manor house along the Hudson River From 1842-1945 was the U.S. Ambassador in Spain Slide 10 Washington Irving cont. From 1848-1859 he was President of Astor Library (New York Public Library) Later works included: Mahomet and His Successors (1850) presentation of the life, beliefs, and character of Mohammed. Wolferts Roost (1855) Died at Sunnyside in 1859 Slide 11 James Fennimore Cooper James Fennimore Cooper was born in Burlington, New Jersey, the son of Quakers, Judge William Cooper and Elisabeth Fennimore Cooper He spent his youth on the family estate on the shores of Otsego Lake. He roamed in the primeval forest and developed a love of nature which marked his books Cooper was educated in the village school, and in 1800-1802 in the household of the rector of St. Peter's In his junior year Cooper was expelled from Yale because of a series of pranks, which included training a donkey to sit in a professor's chair Encouraged by his father, Cooper joined the Navy and served on the Sterling, 1806- 1807. On his return to the United States, he received a warrant as a midshipman. In 1808 he served on the Vesuvius and on the Wasp in the Atlantic in 1809. These experiences later inspired his sea stories Upon his father's death in 1809, Cooper became financially independent. He resigned his commission in 1811 and married Susan Augusta De Lancey, who was a descendent of the early governors of New York colony From the early 1810s Cooper took up the comfortable life of a gentleman farmer (Liukkonen) Slide 12 James Fennimore Cooper cont. James Fenimore Cooper was an upper state New York novelist Between 1813 and 1819 all 4 of Coopers brothers died along his mother 2 of his children also died, both under 2 years of age He turned to writing as a response to these tragedies Coopers literary career spanned form 1820 to his death Slide 13 James Fennimore Cooper cont. Cooper's first novel PRECAUTION (1820) was an imitation of Jane Austen's novels and did not meet with great success. His second was THE SPY (1821). This book brought Cooper fame and wealth and he gave up farming Author of The Leatherstocking Tale, Where he gained his greatest popular success Best known for his stories of Native Americans and early frontier life He produced roughly 32 novels, 2 biographies, 4 histories, a textbook, a memoir, and a series of European travel guides Wrote The Pioneers in 1823 included: The Last of the Mohicans in 1826 The Prairie in 1827 The Pathfinder in 1840 The Deerslayer in 1841 (Liukkonen). Slide 14 James Fennimore Cooper cont. In the beginning of the 1820s Cooper lived in New York City and participated in its intellectual life and politics. He wrote a series of sea adventures, starting from THE PILOT (1824), a genuine American sea tale about the exploits of John Paul Jones. It was followed by THE RED ROVER (1827), THE WING-AND-WING (1842), THE TWO ADMIRALS (1842), AFLOAT AND ASHORE (1844), MILES WALLINGFORD (1844), and THE SEA LIONS (1849) From 1826 to 1833 Cooper lived in Europe, where he published romances and unsuccessful books about democracy, politics, and society. He served as the US consul at Lyons and travelled a great deal. In Europe he became friends with Sir Walter Scott and Marquis de Lafayette, who partly inspired his essay NOTIONS OF AMERICA (1828) (Liukkonen). Slide 15 James Fennimore Cooper During the last decades of his life, Cooper was earning less from his books but was forced to go on writing for income Cooper died at Otsego Hall, on September 14, 1851. He was buried in the cemetery of Cooperstown. His wife followed him four months later One of the few writers who received both popular and critical acclaim His ability to synthesize American history and ideas of democracy with romantic fictional characters, plots, and settings made him the first great American novelist Slide 16 William Cullen Bryant Born on November 3, 1794 in Cummington, Massachusetts Son of Peter Bryant and Sarah Snell whose families dated back to the settlement of New England Aspired to go to Yale University, but family could not afford it Wrote his most famous poem Thanatopsis at age 17, which he hid in his desk 5 years later, Bryants father found the manuscript and sent it to the North American Review Slide 17 William Cullen Bryant cont. The Review published Thanatopsis in 1817, jumpstarting Bryants literary career Englands William Wordsworth (American Wordsworth) greatly influenced his work because of Wordsworths devotion to nature Became a lawyer (1815) and married Frances Fairchild in 1821 Went to New York and became coeditor of the New York Review and Athenaeum Magazine (1825) Slide 18 William Cullen Bryant cont. 1826 Bryant became assistant editor of the New York Evening Post By 1833 he was editor, owned one-third share, and had no financial worries He wrote little poetry during these years Bryant backed free trade, supported Andrew Jackson for presidency, and was an important spokesman for the Democratic Party Slide 19 William Cullen Bryant cont. In the 1830s Bryant broke away from the Democratic party and became a Radical Republican He spoke out against slavery and supported Abraham Lincoln His editorials helped form a conscience against slavery in the U.S. and to build support for the Union cause in the Civil War Only after the war did he turn away from the radical views and back to Andrew Johnsons Reconstruction policy Slide 20 William Cullen Bryant cont. After the death of his wife in 1865, Bryant began translating all of Homer, finishing in 1871 Bryant slowly moved away from the Evening Post, but continued to speak for social causes Died June 12, 1878 His journalism, like his poetry, had purity, accuracy, and meditative quality typical of the New England tradition that had formed him Slide 21 Test Questions?! 1. Name one characteristic of Romanticism. Answers: Nature, rebellion against traditional social rules, or individual expressions or emotions Slide 22 Test Questions?! 2. Who were the Romantics? Washington Irving James Fennimore Cooper William Cullen Bryant Slide 23 Test Questions?! 3. Who was Washington Irving named after? George Washington Slide 24 Test Questions?! 4. What did James Fennimore Cooper turn to when he was faced with tragedies? Writing Slide 25 Test Questions?! 5. Name one piece of writing from James Fennimore Cooper. Deerslayer The Last of the Mohicans The Prairie The Pathfinder Slide 26 Test Questions?! 6. What is William Cullen Bryants most famous poem and at what age did he write it? Thanatopsis 17 Slide 27 Test Questions?! 7. Name one newspaper that William Cullen Bryant wrote for. New York Review New York Evening Post Athenaeum Magazine Slide 28 Test Questions?! 8. Where is Alanna? Not here