A.L._ Mr. Gallardo

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    Applied Linguistics

    By Mr. Humberto Gallardo

    EFL Teacher

    BA Education

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    1. Two translators on a ship are talking."Can you swim?" asks one."No" says the other, "but I can shout for help in ninelanguages.

    2. If the translator is a man, HE translates.If the translator is a woman, SHE translates.If the translator is a computer, IT translates.If the translator is either a man or a woman, S/HE

    translates.Whether the translator is a man, a woman or a computer,S/H/IT translates.

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    What is Human Language?

    Language is a highly elaborated signaling

    system.

    We call the elements of this system TheFeatures of the Language.

    - Some found only in Human Being.

    - Others are similar to Animals. Another aspect of Human Language is that we

    express THOUGHTS with WORDS.

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    Another aspect is The duality of patterning

    It enables us to use our language in a very economicway for a virtually infinite production of linguistic

    units.

    How doesthisprinciple work?

    Human languages > small, limited set of speech sounds(consonants and vowels = phonemes) > capacity toproduce unlimited vocabulary (meaningful).

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    Displacement

    In contrast to other animals, humans have a

    sense of the past and the future. For Example:Gorillas. (do they speak about the future or

    past? Experiences, parents? etc.).

    Displacement is thus our ability to convey a

    meaning that transcends the immediately

    perceptible sphere of space and time.

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    Open-endedness

    The ability to say things that have never beensaid before, including the possibility to express

    invented things or lies, is also a peculiar

    feature of human language.

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    Stimulus-freedom

    Is another aspect that distinguishes human

    language from animal communication.The honey-bee must perform its dance,

    The woodchuck must cry out in order to warn

    his fellows when it beholds an eagle.

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    Humans have the ability to say anything they like in any context.

    This ability is only restricted in certain ceremonial contexts

    such as church services, etc., where a fixed form is expected

    to be followed. The possibility to violate this fixed linguistic

    behavior is then the source of jokes.

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    Language can be ICONIC, which means that thereis a direct correlation betweenform andmeaning.

    ICONIC = Visual Representation.

    e.g. The length of a phrase could represent a length

    of time the phrase refers to, like in a long, longtime ago.

    Another example could be onomatopoeia.

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    The Human Vocal Tract

    An elaborated language requires a highly sophisticated speech

    organ that will enable the speaker to produce the many

    differentiated sounds. Only humans are endowed with a

    speech organ of this complexity.

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    What is LINGUISTICS?Linguisticsisthescientificinquiryinto thehumanlanguage with

    allitsaspects.(Inquiry = a systematic investigation of a matter of public interest.)

    AsitstudiesalLanguageaspectsitincludesthetheoreticalandpracticaluse ofotherStudyAreasderivedfromLinguistics:

    Phonetics: The study of the physical properties of sounds of Human Language.

    Phonology: the study of sounds.

    Morphology: the study of internal structures of words and how they can bemodified.

    Syntax: the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences.

    Semantics: the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed wordcombination (phraseology) and how these combine to form the meaning ofsentences.

    Pragmatics: the study of how utterances are used(literally, figuratively) incommunicative facts.

    Discourse Analysis: The analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, signed).

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    Psicolinguistics emerged in 1950s and 1960s as aresult of Chomskyan revolution.

    Psycholinguistics is a branch of study which combines the

    disciplines ofpsychology and linguistics. It is concerned with

    the relationship between the human mind and the language

    as it examines the processes that occur in brain while

    producing and perceiving both written and spoken discourse.

    What is more, it is interested in the ways of storing lexical items

    and syntactic rules in mind, as well as the processes of

    memory involved in perception and interpretation of texts.

    Also, the processes of speaking and listening are analyzed,

    along with language acquisition and language disorders.

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    Sociolinguistics

    Sociolinguistics is a quickly developing branch of linguisticswhich investigates the individual and social variation oflanguage.

    Some factors influencing the way people speak which are

    investigated by sociolinguistics: Social Class

    Social Context

    Geographical Origins

    Ethnicity

    Nationality

    Gender

    Age

    http://www.tlumaczenia-

    angielski.info/linguistics/sociolinguistics.htm?PHPSESSID=c6ebf0a8d25bde3f4c8

    77f1f06b6e78a

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    ContrastiveLinguistics

    Contrastive Analysis (CA) or Contrastive

    Linguistics: "In the study of foreignlanguage

    learning, the identification of points of

    structural similarity and difference between

    two languages

    Taken from: http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper/1683824.html

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    Pragmatics

    How people comprehend and produce a

    communicative act or speech act in a concrete

    speech situation which is usually a conversation.

    http://www.gxnu.edu.cn/Personal/szliu/definition.html

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    AppliedLinguistics

    According to Longman Dictionary of AppliedLinguistics (1985) there are 2 definitions:

    1. The study ofSecond or Foreign Languagelearning and teaching.

    2.Th

    e study of language and lingu

    istics

    in relat

    ionto practical problems, such as lexicography,

    translation, speech pathology, etc.

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    More Definitionsrelated

    Applied Linguistics uses information from

    sociology, anthropology, and information

    theory as well as from linguistics in order to

    develop its own theoretical models of

    language and language use, and then uses this

    information and theory in practical areas such

    as syllabus design, speech therapy, languageplanning, literacy, bilingualism.

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    WhatA.L.involves?

    It involves:

    a. What weknow aboutlanguage.

    b. How it is learned.

    c. How it is used.

    The primary concern of Applied Linguistics hasbeen SLA theory, SL Pedagogy and

    interrelationship of both areas.

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    AnotherDefinition

    Applied Linguistics is a field that studies cases in

    which language related disorders such as

    speech ofaphasia, schizophrenic and autistic

    speakers and hemispherectomy patients in

    hopes that a better view ofhow the brain

    works when the language system of the

    speaker breaks down or is dysfunctional isuncovered.

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    Bonus: Language Disorders

    DefinitionsAphasia: Partial and total language impairment in common use.

    Schizophrenia: is a serious mental illness characterized by adisintegration of the process of thinking and of emotionalresponsiveness. It most commonly manifests as

    auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre disillusion,disorganized speech and thinking with significant social oroccupational dysfunction.

    Autism: is a disorder of neutral development characterized byimpaired social interaction and communication, and by

    restricted and repetitive behaviour.

    Hemispherectomy: is a surgical procedure where one cerebralhemisphere(half of the brain) is removed or disabled.

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