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Transcript of Aircraft Engine Rools-Royce

The Rolls-Royce Trent EngineMichael CervenkaTechnical Assistant to Director - Engineering & Technology

5 October 2000

Rolls-Royce TodayWorld No 2 in aero-engines World leader in marine propulsion systems Developing energy business Annual sales of over 4.5 billion Orders of over 13 billion

Newtons 3rd Law



Reaction Thrust = Mass x Velocity (MV)


Propeller versus Jet PropulsionPropeller - moves LARGE MASS of air at low velocityMvaircraft Mvjet

Thrust = M(vaircraft

- vjet )

Thrust = m(Vaircraft

- Vjet )



Jet - moves small mass of gas at HIGH VELOCITY

Jet Engine LayoutCompressor mVaircraft mVjet Combustion Chamber Exhaust Nozzle



Different Jet Engine TypesCivil turbofan Trent

Military turbofan EJ200

Different Jet Engine Types - Mechanical drive

Turboprop - AE 2100

Turboshaft - RTM322

Marine Trent

Industrial Trent

Piston Engine versus TurbopropAir intake Piston engineExhaust




Air intake Jet engine driven propeller (Turboprop)


Pressure and Temperature


Pressure (atmospheres)0 1500

Temperature (degrees C)0

Axial Compressor and Turbine Operation

Axial Compressor and Turbine OperationCompressor StagesRotating Rotor Row Rotating Rotor Row

Turbine StagesRotating Rotor Row Rotating Rotor Row


Gas flow

Stationary Vane Row

Stationary Vane Row

Stationary Nozzle Row

Stationary Nozzle Row

Multiple Shafts - Trent 95,000 lbs ThrustLP System 1 Fan stage IP System 8 Compressor stages 5 Turbine stages >3,000 rpm 1 Turbine stage >7,500 rpm

HP System 6 Compressor stages 1 Turbine stage >10,000 rpm

Combustor Operation

Combustor OperationPrimary zone Dilution zone Intermediate zone

Fuel spray nozzle

Reverse ThrustNet 25% to 30% thrust 85% thrust 15% thrust

New Product Introduction ProcessStage 1: Preliminary concept defined for planning purposes Preliminary Concept Product definition stages Definition Stage 2: Full Concept DefinitionFull concept defined, product launched

Stage 3: Product Realisation

Product developed, verified and approved

Stage 4: Production Capability Acquisition

Product produced and delivered to customer

Stage 5: Customer Support

Product used by customer

New Project Planning ProcessBUSINESS MODEL BUSINESS MODELUnits sold Units sold Unit Cost Unit Cost Selling Price Selling Price Concessions Concessions Sales Costs Sales Costs Development Costs Development Costs Guarantee Payments Guarantee Payments Spares Turn Spares Turn Spares Price Spares Price

MARKETING MODEL MARKETING MODELMarket Size Market Size Selling Price Selling Price Concessions Concessions Operating Costs Operating Costs Payload Range Payload Range Maintenance Costs Maintenance Costs Fuel Burn Fuel Burn Commonality Commonality

ENGINEERING MODEL ENGINEERING MODELSafety Safety Unit Cost Unit Cost Weight Weight Noise Noise Emissions Emissions Geometry Geometry Reliability Reliability Operability Operability Performance Performance

102 Million Hours of ServiceMillion hours100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 -22 -524 -524H -524G -535C -524D -535E4

RB211 & Trent operating hours August 2000-22B -524 -535 Trent 4260 3592 103 26.7 million hours 48.5 million hours 25.4 million hours 2.2 million hours engines ordered engines delivered customers currently flying with RB211 or Trent enginesTrent 800 Trent 700

0 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000

Entry into service

Why 3 Shafts?Long / Medium-Haul(40,000-100,000lbs thrust): Range Fuel consumption

Short / Medium-Haul(8,000 - 40,000lbs thrust): Acquisition Cost Maintenance

Requires high: - Overall pressure ratio - Turbine entry temperature - Bypass ratio

Simpler engine, hence moderate: - Overall pressure ratio - Turbine entry temperature - Bypass ratio

Three-Shaft Configuration

Two-Shaft Configuration

Evolution of Trent FamilyFan diameter - in. Trent 800110

Trent 8104

Trent 900Boeing 777

95,000lb Scaled 104,000lb Scaled 80,000lb core core Trent 700 Trent 500 Trent 60097.5

Airbus A3XX

Airbus A330

72,000lb RB211-524G/H-T86.3



Boeing 747

Airbus A340

60,000lbBoeing 767

Trent 700 & 800Phase 5 low emissions combustor Fan diameter increased to 2.8m (110.3in.) Single crystal HPT Single Crystal Uncooled IP turbine blade

Trent 800Five-stage LP turbine

Fan diameter 2.47m (97.4in.) 8 Stage IPC 3 Variables

Area of significant commonality Area of main geometric change

Four-stage LP turbine

Trent 700

Trent 500Scaled IP & HP Scaled combustor compressor with tiled cooling 3D Aerodynamics HP & IP turbines have increased blade speeds High lift LP turbine blading

Trent 500

Trent 700

Material StrengthSpecific StrengthTitanium Alloy Nickel Alloy

Steel Aluminium Alloy


Engine Materials

Titanium Nickel Steel Aluminium Composites

Fan Blade Technology


+ 4% efficiency

Wide-chord fan

Wide-chord Fan Technology1st generation: 1984 2nd generation: 1995

Honeycomb construction

DB/SPF construction

Fan Section

Swept Fans

Compressor Aerodynamics

Trent 500 Tiled CombustorCold supporting wall

Tiles reduce wall cooling air requirements making more air available for NOx reduction A significant cost reduction relative to conventional machined combustors is also achieved

Thermal barrier coating Large primary zone volume for altitude re-light

Cast tile

Small total volume for NOx control

Large airspray injectors for improved mixing and smoke control

Improvements in Materials

Equiaxed Directionally Single Crystal Crystal Structure Solidified Structure

Turbine Cooling

Single pass

Cooling air Multi-pass

Thermal Barrier Coating

Performance TrendsStraight Low Medium High bypass bypass bypass jet 50

40 %sfc improvement (bare engine) 30

Propulsive efficiency


Cycle efficiencyThermal efficiency


Component efficiency-22B -524B4/D4-535E4 -524G/H 700 1973 1981 1983 1988 1994 RB211 800 1995 Trent 500 2000

Datum Avon Conway Spey 1958 1960 1963

Electric Engine ConceptsNew Engine Architecture with reduced parts count, weight, advanced cooling, aerodynamics and lifing

Air for pressurisation/cabin conditioning supplied by dedicated system

Pylon/aircraft mounted engine systems controller connected to engine via digital highway

All engine accessories electrically driven

Internal active magnetic bearings and motor/generators replace conventional bearings, oil system and gearboxes (typical all shafts)

Generator on fan shaft provides power to airframe under both normal and emergency conditions

Compressor Weight Reduction

Conventional disk & blades

Blisk - up to 30% weight saving

Bling - Ti MMC - up to 70% weight saving

Metal Matrix CompositesSpecific StrengthTitanium Metal Matrix Composite

Titanium Alloy

Nickel Superalloy

Temperature (degrees C)

Future Emissions Improvements

Main Pilot

Double-annular combustor



Pre-mixed double-annular combustor

Future Aircraft ConfigurationsLarge diameter duct Gas generator Contra-rotating fan

Contra-rotating turbine Blended wing aircraft may offer up to 30% reduction in fuel consumption - 40% if combined with electric engine concepts

Flying wing


The three-shaft concept is now recognised as a world leader Customer-focused competitive technology is critical to its success Success is a tribute to many generations of people The RB211 & Trent family has a long and secure future