Aircraft Engine

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  • 30/05/2015 AircraftengineWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_engine#Reciprocating_.28piston.29_engines 1/11

    ARollsRoyceMerlininstalledinapreservedAvroYork

    AircraftengineFromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    Anaircraftengineisthecomponentofthepropulsionsystemforanaircraftthatgeneratesmechanicalpower.Aircraftenginesarealmostalwayseitherlightweightpistonenginesorgasturbines.

    Contents

    1Aircraftenginemanufacturingindustry2Timelineofaircraftenginedevelopment3Shaftengines

    3.1Reciprocating(piston)engines3.1.1Inlineengine3.1.2Vtypeengine3.1.3Horizontallyopposedengine3.1.4Hconfigurationengine3.1.5Radialengine3.1.6Rotaryengine

    3.2Turbinepowered3.2.1Turboprop3.2.2Turboshaft

    4Reactionengines4.1Jets

    4.1.1Turbojet4.1.2Turbofan

    4.2Pulsejets4.3Rocket

    5Newerenginetypes5.1Wankelengine5.2Dieselengine5.3Precooledjetengines5.4Electric

    6Fuel7Seealso8Notes9References10Externallinks

    Aircraftenginemanufacturingindustry

    Asof2012,thesizeoftheaircraftenginemanufacturingmarketwasalmost$40billion.[1]Thereareover350manufacturingcompaniesintheUnitedStatesemployingover70thousandpeople.

  • 30/05/2015 AircraftengineWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_engine#Reciprocating_.28piston.29_engines 2/11

    Wrightvertical4cylinderengine

    Timelineofaircraftenginedevelopment

    1848:JohnStringfellowmadeasteamenginefora10footwingspanmodelaircraftwhichachievedthefirstpoweredflight,albeitwithnegligiblepayload.1903:CharlieTaylorbuiltaninlineaeroenginefortheWrightFlyer(12horsepower).1903:ManlyBalzerenginesetsstandardsforlaterradialengines.[2]1906:LonLevavasseurproducesasuccessfulwatercooledV8engineforaircraftuse.1908:RenLorinpatentsadesignfortheramjetengine.1908:LouisSeguindesignedtheGnomeOmega,theworld'sfirstrotaryenginetobeproducedinquantity.In1909aGnomepoweredFarmanIIIaircraftwontheprizeforthegreatestnonstopdistanceflownattheReimsGrandeSemained'Aviationsettingaworldrecordforenduranceof180kilometres(110mi).1910:Coand1910,anunsuccessfulductedfanaircraftexhibitedatParisAeroSalon,poweredbyapistonengine.Theaircraftneverflew,butapatentwasfiledforroutingexhaustgasesintotheducttoaugmentthrust.[3][4][5][6]1914:AugusteRateausuggestsusingexhaustpoweredcompressoraturbochargertoimprovehighaltitudeperformance[2]notacceptedafterthetests[7]191718TheIdfliegnumberedR.30/16exampleoftheImperialGermanLuftstreitkrfte'sZeppelinStaakenR.VIheavybomberbecomestheearliestknownsuperchargerequippedaircrafttofly,withaMercedesD.IIstraightsixengineinthecentralfuselagedrivingaBrownBoverimechanicalsuperchargerfortheR.30/16'sfourMercedesD.IVaengines.1918:SanfordAlexanderMosspicksupRateau'sideaandcreatesthefirstsuccessfulturbocharger[2][8]1926:ArmstrongSiddeleyJaguarIV(S),thefirstseriesproducedsuperchargedengineforaircraftuse[9][nb1]tworowradialwithageardrivencentrifugalsupercharger.1930:FrankWhittlesubmittedhisfirstpatentforturbojetengine.June1939:HeinkelHe176isthefirstsuccessfulaircrafttoflypoweredsolelybyaliquidfueledrocketengine.August1939:HeinkelHeS3turbojetpropelsthepioneeringGermanHeinkelHe178aircraft.1940:JendrassikCs1,theworld'sfirstrunofaturbopropengine.Itisnotputintoservice.1943DaimlerBenzDB670,firstturbofanruns1944:MesserschmittMe163BKomet,theworld'sfirstrocketpropelledcombataircraftdeployed.1945:Firstturboproppoweredaircraftflies,aGlosterMeteorwithtwoRollsRoyceTrentengines.1947:BellX1rocketpropelledaircraftexceedsthespeedofsound.1948:100shp782,thefirstturboshaftenginetobeappliedtoaircraftusein1950usedtodevelopthelarger280shp(210kW)TurbomecaArtouste.1949:Leduc010,theworld'sfirstramjetpoweredaircraftflight.1950:RollsRoyceConway,theworld'sfirstproductionturbofan,entersservice.1968:GeneralElectricTF39highbypassturbofanentersservicedeliveringgreaterthrustandmuchbetterefficiency.2002:HyShotscramjetflewindive.2004:NASAX43,thefirstscramjettomaintainaltitude.

  • 30/05/2015 AircraftengineWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

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    RangerL440aircooled,sixcylinder,inverted,inlineengineusedinFairchildPT19

    ARollsRoyceMerlinV12Engine

    AULPowerUL260ihorizontallyopposedaircooledaeroengine

    Shaftengines

    Reciprocating(piston)engines

    Inlineengine

    Thistypeofenginehascylinderslinedupinonerow.Ittypicallyhasanevennumberofcylinders,butthereareinstancesofthreeandfivecylinderengines.Thegreatestadvantageofaninlineengineisthatitallowstheaircrafttobedesignedwithalowfrontalareatominimisedrag.Iftheenginecrankshaftislocatedabovethecylinders,itiscalledaninvertedinlineengine:thisallowsthepropellertobemountedhighuptoincreasegroundclearance,enablingshorterlandinggear.Thedisadvantagesofaninlineengine

    includeapoorpowertoweightratio,becausethecrankcaseandcrankshaftarelongandthusheavy.Aninlineenginemaybeeitheraircooledorliquidcooled,butliquidcoolingismorecommonbecauseitisdifficulttogetenoughairflowtocooltherearcylindersdirectly.InlineengineswerecommoninearlyaircraftonewasusedintheWrightFlyer,theaircraftthatmadethefirstcontrolledpoweredflight.However,theinherentdisadvantagesofthedesignsoonbecameapparent,andtheinlinedesignwasabandoned,becomingararityinmodernaviation.

    Vtypeengine

    Cylindersinthisenginearearrangedintwoinlinebanks,typicallytilted6090degreesapartfromeachotheranddrivingacommoncrankshaft.ThevastmajorityofVenginesarewatercooled.TheVdesignprovidesahigherpowertoweightratiothananinlineengine,whilestillprovidingasmallfrontalarea.PerhapsthemostfamousexampleofthisdesignisthelegendaryRollsRoyceMerlinengine,a27litre(1649in3)60V12engineusedin,amongothers,theSpitfiresthatplayedamajorroleintheBattleofBritain.

    Horizontallyopposedengine

    Ahorizontallyopposedengine,alsocalledaflatorboxerengine,hastwobanksofcylindersonoppositesidesofacentrallylocatedcrankcase.Theengineiseitheraircooledorliquidcooled,butaircooledversionspredominate.Opposedenginesaremountedwiththecrankshafthorizontalinairplanes,butmaybemountedwiththecrankshaftverticalinhelicopters.Duetothecylinderlayout,reciprocatingforcestendtocancel,resultinginasmoothrunningengine.

    Opposed,aircooledfourandsixcylinderpistonenginesarebyfarthemostcommonenginesusedinsmallgeneralaviationaircraftrequiringupto400horsepower(300kW)perengine.Aircraftthat

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    APratt&WhitneyR2800engine

    requiremorethan400horsepower(300kW)perenginetendtobepoweredbyturbineengines.

    Hconfigurationengine

    AnHconfigurationengineisessentiallyapairofhorizontallyopposedenginesplacedtogether,withthetwocrankshaftsgearedtogether.

    Radialengine

    Thistypeofenginehasoneormorerowsofcylindersarrangedaroundacentrallylocatedcrankcase.Eachrowgenerallyhasanoddnumberofcylinderstoproducesmoothoperation.Aradialenginehasonlyonecrankthrowperrowandarelativelysmallcrankcase,resultinginafavorablepowertoweightratio.Becausethecylinderarrangementexposesalargeamountoftheengine'sheatradiatingsurfacestotheairandtendstocancelreciprocatingforces,radialstendtocoolevenlyandrunsmoothly.Thelowercylinders,whichareunderthecrankcase,maycollectoilwhentheenginehasbeenstoppedforanextendedperiod.Ifthisoilisnotclearedfromthecylinderspriortostartingtheengine,seriousdamageduetohydrostaticlockmayoccur.

    Mostradialengineshavethecylindersarrangedevenlyaroundthecrankshaft,althoughsomeearlyengines,sometimescalledsemiradialsorfanconfigurationengines,hadanunevenarrangement.ThebestknownengineofthistypeistheAnzaniengine,whichwasfittedtotheBleriotXIusedforthefirstflightacrosstheEnglishChannelin1909.Thisarrangementhadthedrawbackofneedingaheavycounterbalanceforthecrankshaft,butwasusedtoavoidthesparkplugsoilingup.

    Inmilitaryaircraftdesigns,thelargefrontalareaoftheengineactedasanextralayerofarmorforthepilot.Alsoaircooledengines,withoutvulnerableradiators,areslightlylesspronetobattledamage,andonoccasionwouldcontinuerunningevenwithoneormorecylindersshotaway.However,thelargefrontalareaalsoresultedinanaircraftwithanaerodynamicallyinefficientincreasedfrontalarea.

    Rotaryengine

    Rotaryengineshavethecylindersinacirclearoundthecrankcase,asinaradialengine,(seeabove),butthecrankshaftisfixedtotheairframeandthepropellerisfixedtotheenginecase,sothatthecrankcaseandcylindersrotate.Theadvantageofthisarrangementisthatasatisfactoryflowofcoolingairismaintainedevenatlowairspeeds,retainingtheweightadvantageandsimplicityofaconventionalaircooledenginewithoutoneoftheirmajordrawbacks.ThefirstpracticalrotaryenginewastheGnomeOmegadesignedbytheSeguinbrothersandfirstflownin1909.Itsrelativereliabilityandgoodpowertoweightratiochangedaviationdramatically.[10]BeforethefirstWorldWarmostspeedrecordsweregainedusingGnomeenginedaircraft,andintheearlyyearsofthewarrotaryenginesweredominantinaircrafttypesforwhichspeedandagilitywereparamount.Toincreasepower,engineswithtworowsofcylinderswerebuilt.

  • 30/05/2015 AircraftengineWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_engine#Reciprocating_.28piston.29_engines 5/11

    LeRhone9Crotaryaircraftengine

    CutawayviewofaGarrettTPE331turbopropengineshowingthegearboxatthefrontoftheengineAnAllisonModel250turboshaft

    enginecommontomanytypesofhelicopters

    However,thegyroscopiceffectsoftheheavyrotatingengineproducedhandlingproblemsinaircraftandtheenginesalsoconsumedlargeamountsofoilsincetheyusedtotallosslubrication,theoilbeingmixedwiththefuelandejectedwiththeexhaustgases.Castoroilwasusedforlubrication,sinceitisnotsolubleinpetrol,andtheresultantfumeswerenauseatingtothepilots.Enginedesignershadalwaysbeenawareofthemanylimitationsoftherotaryenginesowhenthestaticstyleenginesbecamemorereliableandgavebetterspecificweightsandfuelconsumption,thedaysoftherotaryenginewerenumbered.

    Turbinepowered

    Turboprop

    Whilemilitaryfightersrequireveryhighspeeds,manyci