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  • Air Emissions Inventory for Zion National Park

    The Western Governors Association

    ByThe University of California at Riverside

    College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and TechnologyOffice of Environmental Policy Studies

    January 2003

  • Acknowledgements:This document was prepared by the following team of individuals working within CE-CERTs Office of Environmental Policy Study (OEPS): James M. Lents, Ph.D., NicoleC. Davis, Theodore Younglove, Nick Nikkila, Warren Katzenstein, Max Du, RyanWicks, Carrie Malcolm, Marisa Garcia and Andrea Ruiz. OEPS would like toacknowledge Shen Wei (Rick) from Tsinghua University in Beijing, China for hisparticipation in data collection and compilation activities.

    The above noted CE-CERT team wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the followingindividuals within the National Park Service: Dave Sharrow, Rhonda Long, DeniseLouie, Jim Starling, Scott Brown, Jeff Ballard, Cyndi Sidles, and Dan Cohan. Inaddition, the team wishes to thank Kirk Scott, Manager of the Zion shuttle bus system forhis assistance.

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  • Table of Contents

    Title

    Page No.

    ii

    Chapter One Introduction 1

    Chapter Two Park Background Information 8

    Chapter Three Stationary Sources 10

    Chapter Four Area Sources 24

    Chapter Five Mobile Sources 29

    Chapter Six Environmental Benefit of Shuttle Bus System 48

    Chapter Seven Utah Air Quality Rules Review 50

    Chapter Eight Mitigation of Park Emissions 52

    Appendix A Emission Factors for Estimation of Park Emissions A-1

    Appendix B Data Excel Worksheets B-1

    Appendix C Inputs for Mobile Source Emission Modeling C-1

    Appendix D Miscellaneous Documents Provided by Zion Park Personnel D-1

    Appendix E August 16-19, 2000 Field Notes E-1

  • Chapter One - Introduction

    In mid-August, 2000, the Center for Environmental Research and Technology within theCollege of Engineering at the University of Californias Riverside Campus (CE-CERT)was contracted by the Western Governors Association to inventory the air emissions ofcriteria pollutants within eight National Parks. The inventories are to include point andarea sources as well as mobile sources of emissions operating within Park boundaries. Inconsideration of the budget and the timeframe for preparing the inventories, it wasmutually agreed that on-site data collection for characterization of the in-Park vehiclefleet would be limited to two Parks. It was also agreed that these two Parks would needto be surveyed on or before labor-day weekend in order to characterize the in-Parkvehicle fleet during the summer visitation period. Zion and Arches National Parks wereselected because they were felt to be generally representative of the other six parks.Following the on-site vehicle fleet characterization studies, on-site emissions and activitydata were collected at all eight National Parks.

    The CE-CERT survey team initially visited Zion and Arches National Parks betweenAugust 16 and 22, 2000. This was the busiest time of the year for Park staff, and staffresources were especially strained due to efforts to control wildfires that were occurringin a number of the Western states. At the request of the National Park Service, CE-CERTs survey efforts were limited to direct data collection on the in-Park vehicle fleetcomposition and in-Park driving patterns. CE-CERT staff then returned on November 2,2000 and met with Park staff to identify and obtain data related to stationary, area, andmobile source emissions in Zion National Park.

    Based on the data received during these two in-park visits, CE-CERT has developed aninventory of emissions occurring from sources operating within Zion National Park. Thereport is organized to first provide the reader with an overall sense of the total in-Parkemissions, the contribution made by each source category, and the magnitude of theParks total emissions to the totals for neighboring counties (see Tables 1.1-1.5). ChapterTwo provides a brief discussion of the history of Zion National Park. Chapters Threethrough Five provide individual descriptions of the three major emission sourceclassifications; Stationary, Area, and Mobile. At the end of each chapter, spreadsheetsare included that provide information on the individual emission sources and thecalculations employed to develop a best estimate of their emissions. Within each of thesechapters, the emissions have been calculated as monthly averages for two periods of theyear: April through October, and November through March. The first period correspondsto the Parks busiest season when the Zion Canyon shuttle bus system is in operation and,the second period covers the timeframe when the shuttle bus system is not operated.Chapter Six evaluates the environmental benefit of the propane-powered shuttle bussystem recently initiated within the Park. The report concludes with Chapter Seven,which contains the results of a review of Utahs air regulations and their applicability toemissions sources within the Park. Appendix A provides a listing of the emission factorsused to develop this emission inventory. Appendix B provides the Excel worksheets usedto develop much of the data collected into the necessary formats. Appendix C providesthe inputs used in the mathematical modeling conducted to develop the mobile source

    E-1

  • emission estimates. Appendix D is a compilation of data provided by Park personnel thatwere used in the emissions determinations. Appendix E contains the pertinent excerptsfrom the field log maintained by CE-CERT staff during the August 2000 Park visit.A CD is also included in an envelope attached to the inside of the back cover of thisreport. The CD contains all of the report with the exception of Appendix D and theCummins engine test report in Appendix C. The CD is intended to facilitatemanipulation of the data into different groupings for further analyses. It also allows theinventory to be updated in the event that emission factors, used in this report, are updated,more exact information on in-Park sources is developed, or new sources are added to theParks inventory. In addition, the CD contains a compilation of Utahs air qualityregulations.

    Table 1.1a: Summary of Summertime Emissions in Zion National ParkTSP

    (lbs/month)PM10

    (lbs/month)VOC

    (lbs/month)NOX

    (lbs/month) CO (lbs/month)SOx

    (lbs/month)Camping Watchman 660.3 660.3 4,359.4 133.4 4,821.1 67.6

    South 498.2 498.2 3,297.6 37.4 3,637.4 5.8Lava Point 46.7 46.7 309.2 3.5 341.0 0.5Back Country 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

    Sub-Total 1,205.3 1,205.3 7,966.1 174.4 8,799.6 73.9Facilities Zion Lodge 102.4 100.0 12.6 155.6 27.2 457.9

    Old Visitor Center 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.8 0.5 2.7Maintenance Yard 0.2 0.2 87.3 5.1 0.7 4.4Shuttle Bus Maintenance Yard 0.0 0.0 933.5 0.0 0.0 0.0W atchman Bone Yard 346.0 346.0 2,290.0 26.0 2,526.0 4.0Grotto House 1.2 1.2 2.1 0.1 9.2 0.0Visitor Center 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Environmental Education Center 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Kolob Canyon Visitor Center 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0East/South/New Walk Entrances 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Rockville Sewage Treatment 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Park Landfill 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

    Sub-Total 449.9 447.5 3,325.6 190.6 2,563.7 468.9Residential Oak Creek 18.4 18.4 31.8 3.5 138.9 1.6

    W atchman 15.4 15.4 26.5 3.7 115.8 1.9Kolob Canyon 1.2 1.2 2.1 0.4 9.3 0.2Pine Creek 6.1 6.1 10.6 0.6 46.2 0.1East Entrance 6.1 6.1 10.6 0.8 46.2 0.3Lava Point 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Firepit 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.2

    Sub-Total 47.3 47.3 81.7 9.3 356.4 4.2Evaporative Solvent Use 29.0

    Sub-Total 0.0 0.0 29.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Road Maintenance Paving 33,320.0

    Sub-Total 0.0 0.0 33,320.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Other Area Cinder Piles 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

    Prescribed Burning 10,840.2 7,917.0 3,684.5 1,218.0 42,630.0 30.5Wildfires 34,884.0 24,418.8 26,060.4 8,208.0 287,280.0 205.2Re-entrained Dust, Tire, & Brake W ear 15,040.0 3,080.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

    Sub-Total 60,764.9 35,416.3 29,744.9 9,426.0 329,910.0 235.7On-Road Visitor Passenger Vehicles 46.3 46.3 6036.9 1851.8 31295.6 0.0

    Tour Buses 16.2 16.2 134.8 232.4 521.6 0.0Government Vehicles 15.8 15.8 586.7 296.2 3083.5 0.0Shuttle Buses 6.8 6.8 415.7 1190.2 36.3 0.0

    Sub-Total 85.0 85.0 7174.1 3570.6 34937.1 0.0Off-Road Misc. Equipment 0.6 0.6 42.0 0.3 107.8 0.1

    Sub-Total 0.6 0.6 42.0 0.3 107.8 0.1

    Total Emissions from Park (lbs/month) 62,552.9 37,201.9 81,683.3 13,371.2 376,674.5 782.8Total Emissions from Park (tons/day) 1.04 0.62 1.36 0.22 6.28 0.01

    Total Annual Tons of Emissions (W interplus Summer) 341 207 428 62 1,770 3

  • Table 1.1b: Summary of Summertime Emissions in Zion National Park (lesswildfires)

    TSP(lbs/month)

    PM10(lbs/month)

    VOC(lbs/month)

    NOX(lbs/month) CO (lbs/month)

    SOx(lbs/month)

    Camping Watchman 660.3 660.3 4,359.4 133.4 4,821.1 67.6South 498.2 498.2 3,297.6 37.4 3,637.4 5.8Lava Point 46.7 46.7 309.2 3.5 341.0 0.5Back Country 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

    Sub-Total 1,205.3 1,205.3 7,966.1 174.4 8,799.6 73.9Facilities Zion Lodge 102.4 100.0 12.6 155.6 27.2 457.9

    Old Visitor Center 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.8 0.5 2.7Maintenance Yard 0.2 0.2 87.3 5.1 0.7 4.4Shuttle Bus Maintenance Yard 0.0 0.0 933.5 0.0 0.0 0.0Watchman Bone Yard 346.0 346.0 2,290.0 26.0 2,526.0 4.0Grotto House 1.2 1.2 2.1 0.1 9.2 0.0Visitor Center 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Environmental Education Center 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Kolob Canyon Visitor Center 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0East/South/New Walk Entrances 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Rockville Sewage Treatment 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Park Landfill 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

    Sub-Total 449.9 447.5 3,325.6 190.6 2,563.7 468.9Residential Oak Creek 18.4 18.4 31.8 3.5 138.9 1.6

    Watchman 15.4 15.4 26.5 3.7 115.8 1.9Kolob Canyon 1.2 1.2 2.1 0.4 9.3