Aeroflot - An Airline and Its Aircraft

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AEROFLOT: AN AIRLINE ANDITS AIRCRAFTT-[i] Aeroflot:An Illustrated Historyofthe World1s Largest AirlineByR_E_G_ DA.VIES I _ s t r c a t ~ d byIIWIIIKEIIWIIA.CHA.TAEROFLOT:AN AIRLINE ANDITS AIRCRAFTAn Illustrated History of the Worldls Largest AirlineOTHERBOOKSBY R.E.G. DAVIESA History of the World's AirlinesAirlines of the United States Since 1914Airlines of Latin America Since 1919Continental Airlines - the First Fifty YearsRebels and Reformers of the AirwaysPan Am: An Airline and Its AircraftLufthansa: An Airline and Its AircraftDelta: An Airline and Its AircraftAEROFLOT: AN AIRLINE ANDITS AIRCRAFTAn Illustrated History of the Worldls Largest AirlineBy R.E.G. DaviesIllustrated by Mike MachatPALADWR PRESSDEDICATIONWiththe support of his dear wife, Patricia, John Stroudhas devoted a lifetime of painstaking work to the cause of airtransport. He has researched, written, and meticulouslyedited countless books, many of which are of such renownthat they are referred to simply as 'Stroud'. I have beeninspired by John's zeal, integrity, and enthusiasm.In dedicating this book to him, I hope also that I shall comeup to his own exacting standards.Text and maps copyright 1992 by R.E.G. DaviesArt illustrations copyright 1992 by Mike MachatAll rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or byany means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage andretrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher.Published by Paladwr Press, P.O. Box 1467P, RockVille, MD 20850, USAManufactured in Hong KongDesigned by R.E.G. DaviesArtwork by Mike MachatEdited and Produced by John WeggTypesetting/Layout by Fisher & Day, San FranciscoPrepress and Press Management by The Drawing BoardISBN 0-9626483-1-0First Edition--CONTENTSIntroductionPreludePrelude to Air TransportThe First Multi-engined TransportTheEarly AirlinesThe First Soviet Air ServicesFormation of DobroletUkrvozdukhput and ZakaviaDobrolet's First StepsDobrolet Spreads Its WingsAeroflot's Early YearsDobrolet becomes AeroflotTo The End of the LineAirline to the ArcticAviaarktikaThe North PoleLife Support for APolar StationThe Great Polar FlightsAeroflot ExpandsANationwide AirlineThe Great Patriotic WarPost-War PistonsPost-War StrugglePiston-Engined TwilightVersatile BiplaneThe Jet AgeThe World's FirstSustained Jet ServiceTechnical TransformationTurboprop WorkhorseAMainliner fromKievLong-Range Turboprop............................................................................. 6-7I1'ya Muromets : 8-9ACountry in Chaos 10-11Fokker F.Ill 12-13Junkers-F 13 14-15Deruluft Progress 16-17Showing the Flag 18-19KalininK-5 20-21ANT-9 .22-23Flying Boats of the Far East.. 24-25Opening Up the North 26-27The Arctic Experience 28-29ANT-6 30-31AT-25 32-33Flights Long and Short... 34-35Aeroflot Turns to Douglas 36-37Lisunov Li-2 38-39Ilyushin I1-14 40-41Antonov An-2 .42-43Tupolev Tu-104 44-45Tupolev Tu-124 46-47Ilyushin I1-18 .48-49Antonov An-lOA 50-51Tupolev Tu-114 52-53Long-Range JetShort-Haul TurbopropShort-Haul JetThe Mini-LinersStandard TrijetTheSSTSupersonic DiversionTheFirstBig Air FreighterAir Freighter DevelopmentArctic and Antarctic ActivityArctic Ice StationsAntarcticaA SocialServiceSiberian School BusThe HelicoptersAirline Helicopters"We Built a Railroad"Kamov VirtuosityHeavy LiftersAgricultureSeventy Years of AviationAid to AgricultureTheNew Jet AgeIlyushin I1-76World Airline StatusThe First Soviet AirbusWorld's BiggestInto the NinetiesMetamorphosisIndexBibliographyIlyushin I1-62M 54-55Antonov An-24 56-57Tupolev Tu-134 58-59Yakolev Yak-40 and Let L41OUVP-E 60-61Tupolev Tu-154 62-63Tupolev Tu-144 64-65Antonov An-22 66-67Ice Floe Air Service 68-69The Last Continent .70-71An-2s in the Far East 72-73Mil Mi-2 74-75Mil Mi-8 76-77Sheer Versatility 78-79Mil Mi-6P and Mil-10K 80-81King of the Crop Sprayers 82-83Yakovlev Yak-42 84-85AGlobal Network 86-87Ilyushin I1-86 88-89Antonov An,124 90-91Airbus A310-300 92-93Like No Other 94-95............................................................................. 96............................................................................. 96IntroductionFather of Russian Aviation - The ConstructorNobookonRussianaviationis completewithout refer-ence to the inventor Aleksander FedorovichMozhaisky(1825-1890). Hebegantostudybirdflightwhen aged 31, and during the next 20 years, experiment-ed with models. He flewkites and designed propellers. In1876hehimself flewina largekite, towedby a teamofthree horses.In 1877, the War Ministry granted 3,000 rubles for furthertests, and on 23 March1878 Mozhaisky outlined an ambi-tious 'large apparatus' able to lift a man.Granted a further2,000rubles, hetraveledtoEnglandin1880toobtain,fromR. Baker, Son, andHemkiens, twosmall steamengines, oneof20hp, theotheroften. On3 November1981,he received a 'Privilege'to build his flying machine.Partswereconstructedat theBaltiiskyfactoryat StPetersburgandassembledat theKrasnySelomilitaryfield. On31January1883, heapproachedtheRussianTechmcal Society with a request to demonstrate his appa-ratus.By the end of the year, it was moving under its ownpower, at least on the ground.The fuselageand the tail, as well as the353m2(3,800sqft) squareplanformwing, werebuilt of wood, withsteelangle brackets, andcovered with varnished silk fabric, aswerethethreefour-bladedpropellers, thecenteroneofwhich was 8.75m (28ft 7in) in diameter.Some time in1884, an unknown pilot attempted to flyMozhaisky's apparatus. He was launched down a slopingramp, but failedto take totheair because of inadequatepower. Mozhaiskyorderedmorepowerful enginesfromtheObukhovskysteelworks, but diedbeforetheworkwas completed.Other Russianscientistsandinventors, suchas S.l.Chernov, K.Ye. Isiolkovsky, andS.A. Chaplygin, allmadeconsiderable contributionstoaeronauticalknowl-edge during the 1890s.Father of Russian Aviation - The ScientistIt waslefttoanotablescholar of thenext generationtoexaminethescientificprinciples of flight andtopublishanalyses of his research. Nikolai YegorovichZhnkovskiy(1847-1921) isrecognizedinRussiaasthefounder ofmodernaerodynamicsandhydrodynamics.Zhukovskiygraduatedat MoscowUniversityin1868,taught at the Moscow Higher Technical School (M.V.T.U.)from1872, and, from1886, simultaneouslyat the6University. Hecontinued teaching in Moscow, andsuper-visedtheconstructionofhisfirst windtunnel in1902,foundedEurope's firstaerodynamic institute in1904, andM.V.T.U.'s own aerodynamics laboratory in 1910.His continuedstudiesledtothepublicationofthelawgoverninglift in1906, profiles of aerofoilsand propellersin1910-11, andanalyses of propeller tip vortices in1912-13. Hepublishedmanyimportant monographsonaero-dynamic theory.In1918, Nikolai Zhukovskiy was chosento head the pres-tigiousCentral Aero-HydrodynamicsInstitute(TsAGI). Hediedin1921, butsuchwashisstaturethat TsAGIbecameknown as the Zhukovskiy Institute.AcknowledgementsThecompilationof thisbookwouldnot havebeenpossiblewithout the cordial cooperation of the International CommercialD e p a ~ t m e n t of Aeroflot, underthedirectionof VladimirTikhonov, and with the supervision of Vladimir Masenkov,whoassembleda teamtoproVidedataessential forthework.Theteamconsistedof Vadim Suvarov, veteranpilotoftheGreat PatrioticWar; BorisUrenovsky, Professor of theCivilAviationInstituteinMoscow; and Tatiana Vinogradova,once a senior flightattendant (sheflewonthe Tupolev Tu-114toHavanaandtoTokyo). Togethertheteamhelpedtoensurethaterrorsinearly draftswerecorrected andaccuracyensured.Muchof theRussiandocumentationwas translatedbyAlex Kampf, anenthusiasticstudent of Aeroflothistory. InMoscow, I receivedgreatsupportfrommygoodfriendYuriSalnikov, televisiondirectorof aviationdocumentariesandauthorofmagazinearticlesonfamous Soviet airmen. HeintroducedmetoVladimirSamoroukov, whoexaminedmy credentials and first approved the book project.VasilyKarpy, editorofVozduzhnyTransport, proof-readthetext andgavevaluableadvice. HealsointroducedmetoBoris Vdovienko, photographerpar excellence, fromwhosemagnificent collectionI wasabletodraw. Veteranpioneerpilot, General GeorgyBaidukov, ValeryChkalov'srighthandonhisepic1937polarcrossing, gavemeapersonalinsight intothe workingsof theold Aeroflot, anda first-handaccount of the historic meeting with Josef Stalin in 1936.I received generous help from many others. InLeningrad/St Petersburg, I washosted by theAcademyofCivil Aviation, whereProfessor-Director Georgy Kryzhanovsky,Deputy Director Anatoly Khvostovsky, Nina Nekrasovich, IreneVolkova, Vitaly Khalikov, and the Academy's librarian, NatellaSafronova, weremost helpful. In Novgorod, thankstotheChief of the Sub-Region, Anatoli Golovanov, and Deputy ChiefVladimir Bolovsky, I wasable to sample the crop-spraying ver-satility of the remarkable Antonov An-2. In Khabarovsk, theVozduzhnyTransport correspondent, Oleg Borisov, has been acatalystfor somethrillingresearch. ThroughthecourtesyofVladimirSkripnik, DirectoroftheFar EasternRegionofAeroflot, I learnedmuchabout theairline'sprovincial opera-tions, includingademonstrationof theacrobaticprowessoftheAn-2. At Nikolayevsk-na-Amure, ValeryDolmatov,HeadoftheNikolayevskstationandalsoadeputytotheRussianParliament inMoscow, affordedmetheextraordinaryprivilegeofmakingahelicopterpilgrimagetothedignifiedmonument onChkalov(formerlyUdd) Island; andImetVadimRomanuk, local helicoptermechanicandhistorian,whoinspiredtheerectionofthemonument. Later, LeonidNagorny, whosucceededSkripnikin1991(andwhose50thbirthdaypartyIshall longremember), Vladimir Lenuk,AleksanderGlushko, andVladimir Kuznetzov, alsogavememuch assistance.In Tyumen, Director Vladimir Illarionov andespecially Mikhail Ponomarevopenedmyeyestotheheli-copter capital of the world.At Krasnoyarsk, Deputy DirectorBoris Kovchenkovwas most hospitable, as was NikoleiKlimenko at Yeneseisk. At Irkutsk, Vladimir Sokolnikov andPeter Osharov were generous hosts,and my gUide to the excel-lent museum there was Professor-Doctor Yvgeny Altu