Aerial Photography and Flight Planning

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    Aerial Photography and

    Flight Planning

    By: Chris Peters

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    Objectives

    Identify some basic regulations for a ightunder visual ight rules !F"#

    $ist re%uired e%uipment Analy&e forecasted 'eather according to

    !F" 'eather minimums Interpret aeronautical charts( including

    di)erent types of airspace Identify the di)erence bet'een pilotage and

    dead rec*oning Create a +nal ight plan that 'ill comply

    'ith !F" regulations( including the use ofnavigation systems as bac*up

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    ,hat is !F"-

    Flight is to ta*e place using visualreferences

    .ust avoid clouds

    /ormally have a distinguishable hori&on

    0hould have sight of the ground belo'(or in some cases( a cloud layer belo' as

    long as it 'ill not cause spatialdisorientation vertigo#

    Flight plan is /O1 re%uired

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    "e%uired !F" 2%uipment

    31O.A1O F$A.204 acronym

    Tachometer

    Oil pressure gauge Manifold pressure gauge

    Airspeed Indicator

    Temperature gauge Oil temperature gauge

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    "e%uired !F" 2%uipment

    Fuel level gauge

    Landing gear position indicator

    Altimeter Magnetic heading indicator

    Emergency locator transmitter 2$1#

    Seat belts

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    "e%uired !F" 2%uipment

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    !F" ,eather

    !isibility must be 5 miles or greater

    Ceiling must be 6(777 feet or higher

    Ceiling is de+ned by bro*en orovercast cloud layer 89 or 9coverage#

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    !F" ,eather

    For photogrammetry purposes( cloudsin the photographs are undesirable;

    Can usually tell 'here clouds 'ill form

    by obtaining the temperature and de'point for the area;

    1he di)erence bet'een the t'o can bemultiplied by

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    !F" ,eather

    For e=ample( if the temperature is >>? Cand the de' point is 6? C:

    >>? C @ 6? C

    = (777 F1 Clouds on this day 'ould form at >(777

    feet; 1his 'ould probably not be a goodday for aerial photography as your

    options 'ould be very limited; $oo* for days 'ith a high temperature @

    de' point spread;

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    Airspace

    Class B Airspace solid blue line busy airports.iami International Airport( 1ampa InternationalAirport( Orlando International Airport#

    Class C Airspace solid magenta line less busy

    airports still serviced by major airlinesDac*sonville International Airport( Eaytona BeachInternational Airport#

    Class E Airspace dotted blue line small airports'ith control to'ers ainesville "egional Airport#

    Class 2 Airspace controlled airspace sand'ichedbet'een all of these belo' 6(777 feet Class Airspace uncontrolled airports

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    Airspace

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    eneral Information

    .inimum altitude over sparselypopulated area:

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    eneral Information

    Above 6(777 feet is Class A airspace andre%uires special procedures instrumentight rules and ight plan no !F"#

    Conservation areas re%uest airplanes tostay at least >(777 feet above groundlevel

    Be a'are of prohibited( restricted('arning( and military operations areas( asnoted on the sectional chart

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    eneral Information

    .inimum airspeed in basic singleengine airplane: H7 *nots

    .inimum airspeed in light t'inengine airplane: *nots

    Cruise airspeed in basic single engineairplane: 6>7 *nots

    Cruise airspeed in light t'in engineairplane: 6 *nots

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    eneral Information

    Flying at a slo'er speed 'ill allo' for abetter turning radius

    Flying too slo' becomes very

    inecient 'ith regards to fuel

    Best speed is one 'here lift and dragare e%ual( ma*ing it most ecient

    1ypically( you can plan for there to beabout four hours 'orth of fuel on board

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    eneral Information

    Crab: 'ind coming from the 0outh 'illre%uire an airplane ying 2ast to use acrab angle into the 'ind in order to y due2ast;

    For e=ample( the crab angle may bedetermined to be 5 degrees( and theairplane 'ill need to y a heading of J5? inorder to achieve a course along J7? 2ast;

    1his 'ill a)ect the camera on board theaircraft; 1he crab angle 'ill need to becompensated for in order to photographalong straight lines on the ground

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    eneral Information

    Aircraft modi+cations: e=tensivemodi+cations to the aircraft 'ill re%uirean FAA certi+cated Airframe K

    Po'erplant mechanic to record ne''eight K balance data

    0imple e%uipment brought on board for

    use during ight needs to be accountedfor by the pilot 'hen he or she computes'eight K balance numbers for the ight

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    Aircraft Avoidance

    Because ying height should be constantfor photogrammetry purposes( this maycause a problem 'ith normal !F"altitudes related to direction of ight;

    A simple 'ay to remember 'hat altitudeyou should be ying at based on yourdirection is the acronym( O/2; Odd /orth2ast; If you are ying in a general north or

    east direction course bet'een /orth 7?or 5H7? and 68J?#( you should be at oddthousand feet intervals plus

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    Aircraft Avoidance

    1rac could potentially be travelingin the opposite direction at youraltitude if you are heading 'est 'hen

    ying at 5(

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    Creating the Flight Plan

    /avigate to http:99''';s*yvector;com

    Pic* an area you 'ill be ta*ing aerialphotos of;

    0tart out from an airport 'ithin thisarea or near it i;e;( type 3M/!4( theairport identi+er code for ainesville

    "egional Airport( into the 3$ocation$oo*up4 bo=

    Noom all the 'ay in for greatest detail

    http://www.skyvector.com/http://www.skyvector.com/
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    Creating the Flight Plan

    Eetermine the ight lines you 'ill yin order to cover the entire area

    1o set points and create the ightlines( right clic* a spot on the mapand select the P0 point

    Eetermine crab angle based on 'indrelative to ight path and plan toadjust camera accordingly

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    Creating the Flight Plan

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    Creating the Flight Plan

    Because this particular ight plan'ould involve ying bac* and forththrough ainesvilles airspace( you

    'ould 'ant to let the to'er *no'your intentions so the controller canhelp *eep other aircraft separated

    from you Lou 'ould also 'ant to monitor the

    to'er fre%uency at all times

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    Creating the Flight Plan

    Pilotage: ying according to visualreferences landmar*s clearly visible on theground#

    Eead "ec*oning: estimating ones location

    based on ground speed and elapsed timebet'een chec*points

    /avigation bac*up: since most airplanes areno' e%uipped 'ith some form of P0( if one

    gets 3lost4( he or she can simply press the3/"014 button on the P0 e%uipment and+nd the nearest airport or othernavigational aid# and land the airplane;

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    "eferences

    Code of Federal "egulations 1itle 6!olume > Chapter I Parts H6( 86( andJ6

    http:99''';s*yvector;com

    ,olf( Paul "; and B; Ee'itt( >777;2lements of Photogrammetry 'ithApplications in I0; .cra'@ill;

    http://www.skyvector.com/http://www.skyvector.com/
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    1he 2ndQ

    Please +ll out a lesson evaluation

    I have leim 3$earn to Fly4 boo*letshere( 'hich I thin* are a greatintroduction to ying; As leim says(3If you can drive a car( you can y anairplane;4 Please ta*e a copy or send

    me an [email protected] if you 'ould li*e one;