adventures of coral reef

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ADVENTURES OF UNDERWATER

ORGIN OF planetTHE BLUE PLANET, ONLY LIFE SUSTAINABLE PLANET,ONLY EVER GREEN PLANET: THE EARTH THE EARTH WHICH CONTAIN ALL ITS UNIC FEATURESHAD BEEN CREATED OVER MILLON YEARS AGO.

ALTHOUGH,THE ORGIN OF EARTH IS STILL NOW SOME-WHAT MYSTERIOUS . MOST EXPRIMENTS PROVE THAT THE BLUE DOT THE EARTH HAD BEEN CREATED FROM A BIG WELL KNOWN THEORY : BIG BANG

MOST OF US DO NOT DEFINGLY DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE TEARM BIG BANG. The Big Bang and its associated theories try to explain or describe the moment of change from nothingness and no time to the existence of the universe filled with space and marked by time. EARLY EXPRIMENTS ON SUSTAINABILITY OF LIFE IN EARLY 1953,STANLEY L.MILLER AND HAROLD C.UREY ASSEMBLED AN EXPRIMENT ,THAT ATMOSPHERE TO THAT THOUGHT TO EXIST ON EARLY EARTH (this had molecules like ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulphide, but no oxygen)OVER WATER .THIS WAS MAINTAINED AT A TEMPRATURE JUST BELOW 100 C AND SPARKS WERE PASSED THROUGH THE MIXTURE OF GASES TO SIMULATE LIGHTNING .AT END OF THE WEEK [15% OF CARBON HAD BEEN CONVERTED TOSIMPLE COMPOUNDS OF CORBON INCLUDING AMINO ACID WHICH MAKE UP PROTIEN MOLECULES.SO THATS HOW LIFE ARAISES.

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The origin of waterLIFE MAY HAVE BEGUN INSIDE WARM,GENTLE SPRINGS ON GENTLE SEA FLOOR,WHICH BUBBLE MOY(MILLON OF YEARS)AGO WHEN EARTHS OCEAN TOOK OVER THE WHOLE PLANET.THE SPRINGS-AS OPPOSED TO SCALDING HOT,ACEDIC HYDRO TERMAL VENTS PROPOSED BY RESEARCHERS IN 1980S ARE COOLER AND ALKALINE.

ONE EXAMPLE OF THESE ALKALINE VENTS WHICH WAS DUBBED THE LAST CITY WAS FOUND BY ACCIDENT IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN 2000MICHEAL RUSSELL,SAID:

"Life takes advantage of unbalanced states on the planet, which may have been the case billions of years ago at the alkaline hydrothermal vents. Life is the process that resolves these disequilibria.

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THE AMAZING CORAL REEF

What is coral?Its a living organism!It is an invertebrate2 different types:Reef Building: HermatypicSolitary: AhermatypicCoral is cousins to jellyfish and anemones (Cnidarians)Today we will talk mainly about reef building coral

Sun Coral Polyps

Where Can You Find Coral Reefs?Coral is found all over the world:TropicalTemperatePolarOnly tropical corals build reefs

Coral reefs around the world

FORMATION OF CORAL REEFMost of the coral reefs we can see today were formed after thelast glacial periodwhen melting ice caused thesea levelto rise and flood thecontinental shelves. This means that most modern coral reefs are less than 10,000 years old. As communities established themselves on the shelves, the reefs grew upwards, pacing rising sea levels.

Reefs that rose too slowly could become drowned reefs. They are covered by so much water that there was insufficient light. Coral reefs are found in the deep sea away from continental shelves, aroundoceanic islandsand asatolls. The vast majority of these islands arevolcanicin origin. The few exceptions havetectonicorigins where plate movements have lifted the deep ocean floor on the surface.

CORALS ARE CNIDARIANSSoft bodied.Carnivorous.Stinging tentacles arranged in a circle around their mouth.Body symmetry.Specialized tissues.

ANATOMY OF CORALThe coral polyps build a calcium carbonate cup called a corallite.Coral has stinging cells called nematocysts.

ADVANTAGES OF REEFSReefs provide structure and act as focal point for secondary production .They provide important services: Reefs protect shoreline from coastal protection. Provide habitat for fish. They turn into commercial and recreational fishing, diving and boating activities, tourist activities and a source of bio-medical compounds. The National Marine Fisheries Service estimates the commercial value of U.S. fisheries from coral reefs is over $100 million.

Asexual ReproductionTo reproduce coral can reproduce asexually or sexually.Asexual reproduction in corals is called budding.A baby polyp will begin growing off the adult.When it is ready it will detach and live on its own.This can not start new colonies, only help the old colony grow bigger.

Coral ReproductionSexual reproduction is called spawning.External fertilization.It can start new colonies.Sperm and eggs are released into the water column.The fertilized egg is then called a planula.The planula swims until it finds a good place to live.

Arguments for Artificial ReefsIt can help build or rebuild a reef.It will increase fish populations by making new habitats.

19New technology for artificial reefs

So let us save the reefs and save Our own environment.Thank you.