Advances in Nanoengineering

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Transcript of Advances in Nanoengineering

Electronics, Materials and Assembly

Nanoengineering

Advances in

Royal Society Series on Advances in ScienceSeries Editor: J. M. T. Thompson (University of Cambridge, UK)

Published Vol. 1: Advances in Astronomy: From the Big Bang to the Solar System edited by J. M. T. Thompson Advances in Earth Science: From Earthquakes to Global Warming edited by P. R. Sammonds and J. M. T. Thompson

Vol. 2:

Advances in NanoengineeringElectronics, Materials and Assembly

Royal Society Series on Advances in Science Vol. 3

Editors

University of Leeds, UK

A G Davies

J M T ThompsonUniversity of Cambridge, UK

ICP

Imperial College Press

Published by Imperial College Press 57 Shelton Street Covent Garden London WC2H 9HE Distributed by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

This edition copyright by Imperial College Press 2007 Earlier versions of Chapters 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 11 copyright 2000 and 2003 by The Royal Society

Royal Society Series on Advances in Science Vol. 3 ADVANCES IN NANOENGINEERING Electronics, Materials and Assembly Copyright 2007 by Imperial College Press All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher.

For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher.

ISBN-13 978-1-86094-751-3 ISBN-10 1-86094-751-4 Typeset by Stallion Press Email: enquiries@stallionpress.com

Printed in Singapore.

PREFACE

Although researchers began to use the prex nano more than thirty years ago, it is only in the last ten years that its use has spread to virtually every eld of science, technology and medicine. Today it is used as much for fashion as it is for scientic classication, but the blossoming of interest nevertheless reects a genuine explosion in the useful application of nanotechniques and nanomaterials to both science and technology. We have reached the point where it is possible to manipulate materials at the molecular and atomic level and create genuinely new materials and processes that are tuned for particular applications. Examples have emerged in elds as disparate as novel semiconductors for nanoelectronics and medicines for the treatment of hereditory illnesses. Capabilities are emerging in nanoscience and nanotechnology that could not have been imagined two decades ago and this book provides an invaluable underpinning for those genuinely interested in understanding their limits and capabilities so that they can apply them to the advancement of science and engineering. When the prex nano was rst used in the 1970s, it genuinely referred to structures with dimensions that approached a nanometer or at least a few nanometers, and distinguished them from microstructures, but as its use spread, the denition was loosened to embrace structures up to 100 nanometer and that is where it has settled. It is important to preserve it at this level if the classication is to remain of value. This volume concentrates on the science and technology that underpins the genuine advances that have been made in manipulation and examination at dimensions below 100 nanometers. Starting with a chapter on carbon and its various molecular congurations it contains chapters written by experts on both manmade and naturally occurring structures, on nanodevices with potential application to information and communication technologies, and on thev

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advanced analytical and microscopical techniques that have been developed to examine and assess these incredible small artifacts. There are chapters on molecular self-assembly and tunnel transport through proteins showing how science and technology can now operate at a level that probes the internal mechanisms of life itself. The nanoworld is so wide and diverse that no single volume is going to give comprehensive coverage of worldwide activity but this book covers as much as any and will long be useful as a reference to those entering the eld or interested in its capabilities. Lord Broers FREng FRS Chairman, House of Lords Science and Technology Select Committee Past President, Royal Academy of Engineering

CONTENTS

PREFACE INTRODUCTION Giles Davies 1. THE SHAPE OF CARBON: NOVEL MATERIALS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones 1 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Carbon Nanostructures: Fullerenes, Carbon Onions, Nanotubes, Etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Fullerene discovery and bulk synthesis . . . . . . . . 2.2 From giant fullerenes to graphitic onions . . . . . . . 2.3 Carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Identication and structure of carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Carbon nanotube production methods . . . 2.3.3 Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes . 2.3.4 Electronic properties of carbon nanotubes . 2.3.5 Thermal properties of carbon nanotubes . . 2.3.6 Carbon nanocones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.7 Negatively curved graphite: Helices, toroids, and schwarzites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.8 Haeckelites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

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Contents

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The Future of Carbon Nanostructures: Applications and Emerging Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Field emission sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Scanning probe tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Li ion batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Electrochemical devices: Supercapacitors and actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Molecular sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Carboncarbon nanocomposites: Joining and connecting carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Gas and hydrogen storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Nanotube electronic devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Biological devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Nanotube polymer composites . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 Nanotube ceramic composites . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Layered coated nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions and Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2. INORGANIC NANOWIRES Caterina Ducati 1 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio Inorganic Nanostructures . 2.1 Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of silicon nanowires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Synthesis of RuO2 nanorods in solution . . . . . . . 2.3 Physical methods for the synthesis of SiC nanorods and NiSMoS2 nanowires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3. MULTILAYERED MATERIALS: A PALETTE FOR THE MATERIALS ARTIST Jon M. Molina-Aldareguia and Stephen J. Lloyd 1 2 3 4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multilayers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hard Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 TiN/NbN multilayers: A case where plastic ow is conned within each layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TiN/SiNx multilayers: A case where columnar growth is interrupted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 TiN/SiNx multilayers revisited: A case where totally new behavior (not found in the bulk at all) is unraveled when the layers are made extremely thin . Metallic Magnetic Multilayers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion and Future Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4. NATURE AS CHIEF ENGINEER Simon R. Hall 1 2 3 Nature Inspires Engineering . Nature Becomes Engineering Engineering Nature . . . . . . 3.1 The future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY: THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH TO NANOSCALE SYSTEMS Philip A. Gale 1 2 3 4 5 6 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Molecular Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Assembly with Covalent Modication . . . . . Supramolecular Approaches to Molecular Machines Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6. MOLECULAR SELF-ASSEMBLY: A TOOLKIT FOR ENGINEERING AT THE NANOMETER SCALE Christoph Wlti a 1 2 3 4 5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functionalized Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . DNA-Based Branched Complexes . . . . . . Manipulation of DNA by Electric Fields . . Concluding Remarks and Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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