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  • Edited by

    Roman Gr. Maev

    Advances in Acoustic Microscopy and High Resolution Imaging

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  • Advances in Acoustic Microscopy and High Resolution Imaging

    From Principles to Applictaions

    Edited by Roman Gr. Maev

  • The Editor

    Prof. Roman Gr. MaevNSERC Indust. Research ChairUniversity of Windsor401, Sunset AvenueWindsor ON N9B 3P4Canada

    All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

    Library of Congress Card No.: applied for

    British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche NationalbibliothekThe Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.

    2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag & Co. KGaA, Boschstr. 12, 69469 Weinheim, Germany

    All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law.

    Print ISBN: 978-3-527-41056-9ePDF ISBN: 978-3-527-65533-5ePub ISBN: 978-3-527-65532-8mobi ISBN: 978-3-527-65531-1oBook ISBN: 978-3-527-65530-4

    Cover Design Adam-Design, Weinheim, GermanyTypesetting Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited, Hong KongPrinting and Binding Markono Print Media Pte Ltd, Singapore

    http://dnb.d-nb.de

  • V

    Contents

    ListofContributors XIII Introduction XVII AuthorBiographies XIX

    PartOne Fundamentals 1

    1 FromMultiwaveImagingtoElasticityImaging 3MathiasFinkandMickaelTanter

    1.1 Introduction 31.2 RegimesofSpatialResolution 31.3 TheMultiwaveApproach 41.4 WavetoWaveGeneration 51.5 WavetoWaveTagging 71.6 WavetoWaveImaging:MappingElasticity 81.7 Super-resolutioninSupersonicShearWaveImaging 141.8 ClinicalApplications 161.9 Conclusion 19 References 21

    2 ImagingviaSpeckleInterferometryandNonlinearMethods 23JeffreySadlerandRomanGr.Maev

    2.1 GeneralIntroduction 232.2 PartI:SpeckleInterferometry 242.2.1 Introduction 242.2.2 LabeyriesMethod 252.2.3 KnoxThompsonMethod 292.2.4 ImportanceofPhaseDifferenceCalculation 322.2.5 LabeyrieandKnoxThompsoninTwoDimensions 332.2.6 OtherImprovementstoSpeckleInterferometry 342.3 PartII:NonlinearImaging 342.3.1 Introduction 342.3.2 Deviation(DifferenceSquared),orAbsoluteDifference 36

  • VI Contents

    2.3.3 FourierTransform-BasedMethodology 362.3.4 FourierMethodology:HowtoCreateanImage 382.3.5 FourierTransform:ProblemswithUsing 392.3.6 HilbertTransform-BasedMethodology 392.3.7 HilbertMethodology:HowtoCreateanImage,and

    3DImage 422.4 SummaryandClosing 44

    SelectedReferences(BySubject) 45Speckle:BaseMethods 45Speckle:MoreAdvancedMethods 45NonlinearImaging 45

    PartTwo NovelDevelopmentsinAdvancedImagingTechniquesandMethods 47

    3 FundamentalsandApplicationsofaQuantitativeUltrasonicMicroscopeforSoftBiologicalTissues 49KazutoKobayashiandNaohiroHozumi

    3.1 GeneralIntroduction:BasicIdeaofanUltrasonicMicroscopeforBiologicalTissues 49

    3.2 SoundSpeedProfile 503.2.1 Fundamentals 503.2.2 SpecimentobeObserved 503.2.3 ExperimentalSetupandAcquiredSignal 513.2.4 CalculationofSoundSpeed 523.2.4.1 FrequencyDomainAnalysis 523.2.4.2 TimeFrequencyDomainAnalysis 543.2.5 Two-DimensionalSoundSpeedProfiles 563.2.6 AttemptsatBetterSpatialResolution 583.3 AcousticImpedanceProfile 603.3.1 Fundamentals 603.3.2 ExperimentalSetup 613.3.3 SpecimentobeObserved 623.3.4 AcquiredSignal 633.3.5 CalibrationforCharacteristicAcousticImpedance 633.3.6 ObservationofCerebellarCortexofaRat 653.3.7 CellSizeObservation 673.3.8 CommercializedEquipment 693.4 Summary 70

    References 70

    4 PortableUltrasonicImagingDevices 71SergeyA.Titov,RomanGr.Maev,andFedarM.SeverinReferences 91

  • Contents VII

    5 High-FrequencyUltrasonicSystemsforHigh-ResolutionRangingandImaging 93MichaelVogtandHelmutErmert

    5.1 GeneralIntroduction 935.2 High-FrequencyUltrasonicSystemComponents 945.2.1 UltrasoundEchoSystems 945.2.2 TransmitterandReceiverComponentsforHigh-FrequencyUltrasonic

    EchoSystems 955.2.3 SpectralandRangeResolutionProperties 975.2.4 MeasurementandOptimizationofthePulseTransferProperties 995.2.5 RangeResolutionOptimization:InverseEchoSignalFiltering 1015.2.6 MeasurementofAcousticScatteringParametersinPlaneWave

    Propagation 1025.3 EngineeringConceptsforHigh-FrequencyUltrasonicImaging 1045.3.1 Single-ElementTransducerB-ScanTechniques 1045.3.2 LateralResolutionOptimization 1055.3.2.1 B/D-ScanTechnique 1065.3.2.2 SyntheticApertureFocusingTechniques(SAFT) 1065.3.3 LimitedAngleSpatialCompounding(LASC) 1105.3.4 MultidirectionalTissueCharacterization 1125.4 High-FrequencyUltrasoundImaginginBiomedicalApplications 1155.4.1 SkinImaging 1155.4.2 ImagingofSmallAnimals 1175.5 Summary 118

    References 119

    6 QuantitativeAcousticMicroscopyBasedontheArrayApproach 125SergeyTitovandRomanGr.Maev

    6.1 GeneralIntroduction 1256.2 MeasurementofVelocityandAttenuationofLeakyWaves 1266.3 MeasurementofBulkWaveVelocitiesandThicknessof

    Specimen 1416.4 Conclusions 150

    References 150

    PartThree AdvancedBiomedicalApplications 153

    7 StudyoftheContrastMechanisminanAcousticImageforThicklySectionedMelanomaSkinTissueswithAcousticMicroscopy 155BernhardR.Tittmann,ChiakiMiyasaka,ElenaMaeva,andDavidShum

    7.1 Introduction 1557.1.1 WhatIsMelanoma? 1557.1.2 HowIsMelanomaDiagnosed? 156

  • VIII Contents

    7.1.3 PresentProblemsforBiopsy 1577.1.4 ObjectiveofPresentStudy 1577.2 PhysicalandMathematicalModelingforFiveLayerWavePropagation

    inanAcousticMicroscope 1587.3 SamplePreparation 1627.4 DigitalImagingOpticalandUltrasonic 1637.4.1 OpticalImage 1637.4.2 AcousticImagingPrinciple(Pulse-WaveMode) 1647.4.3 Resolution 1687.4.4 AcousticImages 1697.4.5 WaveformAnalysis 1717.5 HighFrequencyAcousticMicroscopy 1747.5.1 NormalControlSkinTissue 1747.5.2 AbnormalSkinTissue 1757.5.3 AcousticVelocity 1757.5.4 ComputerSimulation 1777.5.4.1 ExperimentalV(z)Curve 1777.5.4.2 TheoreticalV(z)Curve(SimulationofV(z)Curve) 1787.6 Conclusions 181

    Acknowledgment 183References 183

    8 NewConceptofPathologyMechanicalPropertiesProvidedbyAcousticMicroscopy 187YoshifumiSaijo

    8.1 Introduction 1878.2 PrincipleofAcousticMicroscopy 1888.3 ApplicationtoCellularImaging 1898.4 ApplicationtoHardTissues 1918.5 ApplicationtoSoftTissues 1938.5.1 GastricCancer 1938.5.2 MyocardialInfarction 1958.5.3 Kidney 1978.5.4 Atherosclerosis 1978.6 UltrasoundSpeedMicroscopy(USM) 2008.7 ArticularTissues 2028.8 Summary 202

    References 204

    9 QuantitativeScanningAcousticMicroscopyofBone 207PascalLaugier,AmenaSaed,MathildeGranke,andKayRaum

    9.1 Introduction 2079.1.1 HierarchicalStructureofBoneandProperties 2079.1.2 RelevanceofMultiscaleElasticProperties 2099.1.3 HistoryofMeasurementPrinciples 210

  • Contents IX

    9.2 QuantitativeSAM-BasedImpedanceofBone 2139.2.1 Theory 2139.2.2 Time-ResolvedMeasurements 2169.2.3 MeasurementswithTime-GatedAmplitudeDetection 2179.2.3.1 Calibration 2189.3 TissueMineralization,AcousticImpedance,andStiffness 2199.4 ElasticAnisotropyattheNanoscale(Lamellar)Level 2229.5 ElasticAnisotropyattheMicroscale(Tissue)Level 2239.6 ApplicationsinMusculoskeletalResearch 2259.7 Conclusions 226

    References 228

    PartFour AdvancedMaterialsApplications 231

    10 ArrayImagingandDefectCharacterizationUsingPost-processingApproaches 233AlexanderVelichko,PaulD.Wilcox,andBruceW.Drinkwater

    10.1 Introduction 23310.2 ModelingArrayData 23710.2.1 Introduction 23710.2.2 Ray-BasedDescriptionofUltrasonicArrayData 23810.2.2.1 DeterminingtheRay-Paths 23810.2.2.2 PredictingtheSignalAssociatedwithaRay-Path 24010.2.2.3 SimpleExample 24010.2.3 MathematicalModelofUltrasonicArrayData 24210.3 Imagingwith1DArrays 24510.3.1 ClassicalBeam-