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Transcript of Advanced Components - Electr Advanced Components for MGI.pdf¢  Powering the 21st Century...

  • Advanced Components

    Presented by Dale T. Bradshaw, Modern Grid Initiative Team San Diego Smart Grid Summit October 25, 2006

    1

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

    Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy

    Reliability

    Advanced Components: Examples

    Composite conductors

    Low Impedance Low EMF bundle configurations for HVAC

    Next generation FACTS/PQ devices

    Superconducting rotating machines

    Fault current limiters

    Superconducting transmission cable

    Advanced distributed generation and energy storage

    2

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    New Conductors will increase Thermal Capacity, but Drive up Need for Dynamic Reactive Power (as will Parallel Line Contingencies)

    -500

    0

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    M VA

    R

    Current

    ACSR

    Hi T low Sag

    ACSS/TWFirst and Second Generation SuperVARtm

    FACTs?

    3M ACCC

    Thanks to Dr. Arshad Mansoor, VP, EPRI

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

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    Another Example of a Composite Conductor CTC’s Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced-ACSR

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    0.8

    0.85

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    MW Transferred

    V ol

    ta ge

    p u

    No Caps With Caps

    Without Capacitors Voltage Collapse is slower

    With Capacitors

    Voltage Collapse is sharper & faster

    Growing Risk of Voltage Collapse

    CA situation

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

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    Growing Risk of Voltage Collapse Loss of Capacitor VAR Output as a Function of Line Voltage Thus Shunt Capacitors are Only a Short Term Solution To Voltage Issues

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    Power Transfer Enhancement of Overhead Power Lines Unique Bundle Configurations Tennessee Tech University - Dr. Prit Chowduri

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

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    Reliability

    Power Transfer Enhancement of Overhead Power Lines Unique Bundle Configurations Tennessee Tech University - Dr. Prit Chowduri

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

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    Examples of FACTS Power Electronics Devices: Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) AEP Inez Substation +/- 320 Mvar

    AEP / EPRI / Westinghouse Demonstration - 640 MVA

    Increase transmission line capacity Direct power flow along selected lines Powerful system oscillation damping Voltage support and regulation

    Line Load

    Electronic generator to provide reactive power and extract real power

    Electronic generator to provide reactive power and insert real power

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

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    Another Example of a FACTS Devices: DG&E-Talega STATCOM Site

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    SDG&E-Talega STATCOM Inverters

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    Example of a Distributed STATCOM (DSTATCOM) for Control of Voltage and Transient Stability TVA’s D-VAR at Inez substation in MS.

    A VAr next to the customer or at the low voltage side of a T&D interface is 2 to 3 times more effective in supporting voltage than a VAr produced by Generators or on the Transmission system.

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    Possible New Technology for Voltage & Stability Control Future Voltage Source Converter Using Gen 4 ETO Thyristor Dr. Alex Huang at NCSU SPEC

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    ETO Device Development Roadmap

    Gen-3

    Gen-6 ETO (SiC ETO)

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

    • Gen-5 ETO •(ETO Module)

    Gen-4 ETO

    20 kV

    10 kV

    4.5 kV

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/industrial_technologies/images/pro_jesica.jpg&imgrefurl=http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/industrial_technologies/index_en.html&h=186&w=200&sz=11&tbnid=iIyNNq_Jcv4J:&tbnh=92&tbnw=98&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsic%2Bwafer%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

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    ETO System Field Demonstration Roadmap

    TVA Flicker Mitigation with TUCAP Energy Storage

    ETO Converter

    2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    P (MVA)

    30

    10

    4.5

    BPA Wind farm STATCOM

    STATCOM: Completed TUCAP: underway

    Project Initiated

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.stasys.co.uk/images/common/windfarm.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.stasys.co.uk/common/windfarms.htm&h=319&w=400&sz=20&tbnid=5FaGVSG7MYEJ:&tbnh=95&tbnw=120&hl=en&start=10&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwindfarm%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

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    Solid-State Transformer (SiC based)

    Size:10 m3

    Conventional 2.7 MVA transformer

    Estimated Size:3.4 m3

    2.7 MVA Solid-state transformer

    AC Ha

    rmo nics

    Filte r

    Front End

    Load Converter

    13.8kV AC

    4160V AC Estimated Size: 3.4m3

    A VAR producer rather than a VAR consumer 3x size and significant weight reduction compared

    to conventional transformer.

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    TIPS

    EDGES

    GATED

    Diamond Anode

    Diamond Cathode

    SiO2

    Possible Long Term Technology for Voltage & Stability Control CVD diamond tips, edges and flat electronic configurations

    Bas e Elec trode

    Anode

    Diamo nd Tip Cathode

    Ga te -

    - - -

    -

    -

    -

    - -

    -

    -

    -

    --

    - -

    -- - -

  • Powering the 21st Century Economy

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    Possible Long Term Technology for Voltage & Stability Control Diamond Technology Packaging Dr. Jim Davidson at Vanderbilt University

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    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of Polycrystalline Diamond in a Vacuum on the Cathode of a Field Effect Diode, Triode, Transistor, etc.

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Diamond Diodes, Triodes, & Thyristors

    Diamond devices potentially can: Carry 5 times more current (less complex & lower cost) Conduct heat 4 times better than copper (lower cost) Operate at >500 C versus 150 C for Silicon (lower cost & more reliable air cooling) Carry 5 to 10 times the DC voltage (lower cost without transformers) Operate at much higher frequencies (up to GHz) than conventional devices resulting in lower harmonics and improved power quality Can reduce costs by >50% and improve performance for FACTS, PCS for DC, DSI, HVDC, transfer switches

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    “Back to the Future” with a High Temperature Superconducting Synchronous Condenser

    New relatively low cost option Instant 2X output for transients and 4X output for peaks. Low operating and maintenance costs Inherently stable Commercially available Prototype successfully tested in TVA service area, 2005 Modular High Reliability Relocatable

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    2nd generation YBCO HTS wire to reduce wire cost by a factor of 5x 2G wire will Increase magnetic field, critical current, and MVAR output from the same size High temperature Superconducting Synchronous Condenser by 4X to 5X 2G wire will allow large high efficiency, high torque, cost effective superconducting motors for power plants (primarily nuclear and coal) and industries

    Back to the Future Voltage and Transient Stability Control Technology High Temperature Superconducting Synchronous Condenser – a Better Source of Dynamic VARs per DOE ORNL

    1.0E+02

    1.0E+03

    1.0E+04

    1.0E+05

    1.0E+06

    1.0E+07

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