Adrenal, pacreas, reproductive glands
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- 1. Endocrinology Princess Alen I. Aguilar
2. Are closely associated with the kidneys A gland sits atop each kidney like a cap and is embedded in the mass of adipose tissue that encloses the kidney. Very vascular; hormones secreted are steroids Consist of two parts: Adrenal medulla- central portion; consist of irregularly shaped cells organized in groups around blood vessels; a modified postganglionic neurons Adrenal cortex- outer part; composed of closely packed masses of epithelial cells, organized in layers; Layers are form an OUTER ( Glomerulosa ) MIDDLE ( Fasciculata ) INNER ( Reticularis ) Adrenal glands 3. Adrenal Gland Divided into 2: Adrenal Medulla Adrenal Cortex 4. Adrenal Glands histology 5. Adrenal Gland Hormones 6. Adrenal Medulla Hormones Comparative Effects of Epinephrine & Norepinephrine Part or Function affected Epinephrine Norepinephrine Heart Increases rate and force of contraction Increases rate and force of contraction Blood vessles Dilates vessels in skeletal muscle, decreasing resistance to blood flow Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles, resulting fro constriction of blood vessels in skin and viscera Systemic Blood pressure Increases somewhat due to increased cardiac output Increases greatly due to vasoconstriction Airways Dilates Dilates slightly Reticular formation of brain Activates Produces little effect 7. Hypersecretion of cortisol Causes include a tumor of the Adrenal gland or a tumor that secrets ACTH, which is turn stimulates the secretion of cortisol. Characterized by breakdown of muscle proteins and redistribution of body fat, resulting in spindly arms and legs accommpanied by rounded moon face- Buffalo hump. Adrenal Gland Disorders Cushing Syndrome 8. Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency Majority of cases are autoimmune, in w/c Abs causes adrenal cortex destruction or blocking binding of ACTH to its receptors. Adrenal Gland Disorders Addisons Disease 9. Usually a benign tumor of the chromaffin cells of the Adrenal Medulla Pheo= Dusky; chromo= Color; cyto= cell Causes hypersecretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine Resulting to prolonged version of the fight-or-flight response; rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia/glucosuria, an elevated basal metabolic rate, flushed face, nervousness, sweating, and decreased gastrointestinal motility. Tx- surgical removal of tumor Adrenal Gland Disorders Pheochromocytomas 10. Consist of two major types of secretory tisues which reflects its dual function as an exocrine and endocrine gland Exocrine-secretes digestive juices Endocrine=releases hormones Elongated, somewhat flattened organ posterior to stomach and behind the pariental perotnonium; Endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of groups of cells that are closely asstd, with blood vessels- these groups forms islets of Langerhans/ pancreatic islets Which includes two distinct type cells: Alpha cells- secretes glucagon Beta cells- secrets insulin Pancreas 11. Pancreas 12. Pancreatic Hormones Control of secretion Principal Action Decreased blood level of glucose, exercise. And mainly protein meals stimulate secretion; somatostatin & insulin inhibit secretion Glycogenolysis; gluconeogenesis and releasing glucose in blood Increased blood level of glucose, acetylcholine, arginine and leucine (2 aa), glucagon GIP, hGH, & ACTH stimutae secretion; somatostatin inhibits secretion Intercellular glucose transport; glycogenesis, decreaseing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis; increases lipogenesis and stimulates protein synthesis Pancreatic polypeptide inhibits secretion Inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon; slows absorption of nutrients from GI tract Meals containing protein, fasting, exercie, and acute hypoglycemia stimulate secretion; somatostatin and elevated blood glucose level inhibit secretin Inhibits somatostatin secretion, gallbladder contraction & secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes. 13. Pancreatic Disorder Inability to produce or use insulin Hallmark: Polyuria Polydipsia Polyphagia Type 2 (NIDDM)- more common; Adult onset Diabetes arises not from a shortage of insulin but because target cells becoe less sensitive to it due to down-regulation of insulin receptors. Diabetes mellitus Type 1 (IDDM) Occurs because the persons immune system destroys the pancreatic beta cells Juvenile; can develop ketoacidosis 14. Often results when a diabetic injects too much insulin; main symptoms is Hypoglycemia- which stimulates the secretion of epinephrine, glucagon, & GH. As a consequence- anxiety, sweating, tremor, increased heart rate, hunger and weakness occur. Sever hypoglycemia leads to mental disorrientation, convulsions, unconsciousness and shock. Insulin Shock Hyperinsulinism Pancreatic Disorder 15. The ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce estrogens, progesterone and inhibin. Theses sex hormones govern the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics, reproductive cycles, pregnancy, lactation and normal female reproductive functions. The testes lies inside the scrotum and produce testosterone and inhibin. These sex hormones govern the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics and normal male reproductive functions. Ovaries and Testes 16. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!