Adrenal gland functions and adrenal insufficiency

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2. CONTENTS ADRENAL GLAND: Introduction Function Adrenal Insufficiency Dental Management 3. INTRODUCTION The two adrenal glands, each of which weighs about 4grams, lie at the superior poles of the two kidneys. Each gland is composed two distinct parts: the innermedulla and the outer cortex. 4. ADRENAL CORTEX: Secretes corticosteroids- mineralo-corticosteroids,gluco-corticosteroids and androgenic hormones. Mineralo-corticosteroids- affect electrolytes ofextracellular fluids: sodium and potassium. Gluco-corticosteroids- increase the blood glucose level. Androgenic hormones- exhibit the same effects as themale sex hormones. 5. ADRENAL MEDULLA: Functionally related to the sympathetic nervous system. Secretes Epinephrine and Nor-epinephrine These hormones cause almost the same effects asdirect stimulation of the sympathetic nerves in all partsof the body. 6. FUNCTIONS OF MINERALO-CORTICOIDS(ALDOSTERONE) : Mineralocorticoid Deficiency Causes Severe Renaldisorders like Sodium Chloride Wasting andHyperkalemia. Aldosterone Increases Renal Tubular Reabsorptionof Sodium and Secretion of Potassium. Aldosterone Stimulates Sodium and PotassiumTransport in Sweat Glands, Salivary Glands, andIntestinal Epithelial Cells. 7. FUNCTIONS OF GLUCO-CORTICOIDS(CORTISOL): Stimulate gluconeogenesis (formation of carbohydratefrom proteins and some other substances) by the liver. Cortisol also causes a moderate decrease in the rate ofglucose utilization by most cells in the body. Decreased protein synthesis and increased catabolismof protein already in the cells. It promotes mobilization of fatty acids from adiposetissue. 8. The cortisol has two basic anti-inflammatory effects: (1) It can block the early stages of the inflammationprocess before inflammation even begins. (2) If inflammation has already begun, it causes rapidresolution of the inflammation and increased rapidity of healing. Cortisol reduces lymphocyte production and hence, suppressesimmunity. Cortisol Blocks the Inflammatory Response to AllergicReactions. 9. ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY: CAUSES 10. DENTAL MANAGEMENT: 11. THANK YOU!!!