Admission in india 2015

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  • 1. Admission in India

2. Comparative 3. Comparative Research1. General All research is comparative Terms of comparative social science1. Comparative Research Proper (Ragin) Goals/Advantages Characteristics1. Comparative Methods Method of Agreement (Mill) Method of Difference (Mill) Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) (Ragin) 4. All research is comparative ! Implicit vs explicit comparison Synchronic vs diachronic comparison Case studies (n = 1) and comparison Implicit comparison (description, concepts) Within-case comparison Case = process (implicit 5. Types of Case Studies Extreme Case Typical Case Crucial Case Deviant Case Counterfactual CaseWhat makes your case significant? By assigning your case study to one ofthese types, you are relating your case to the universe of other cases, yourare setting it into context. Even though you might be doing a case study(n=1), you are comparing (going beyond that single case) 6. Terms of comparative socialresearch Observation:One characteristic of one case Description:representation of all relevant features/aspects of a case Classification:Grouping of cases along one (and only one ) feature. Each case can be attributed toone class only.Ex: Classification of voters according to their party preference: Labour voters, ConVoters, LibDem Voters Typology:Grouping of cases along two or more aspects.Real type aspects that can be found together quite often empirically.Ideal type (Max Weber) - one-sided accentuation of some logically connectedcharacteristics. Real cases do not necessarily fit into these types.Ex: Aristotles forms of government (number of people involved + normativejudgement)Lijpharts types of democracy: Consensus v. Majoritarian DemocracyNote: neither of the four does offer an explanation of reality, they are meant to bringorder/perspective to social life and to the (potentially) infinite number of 7. The comparative method (proper) 8. The comparative method (proper) Small/medium number of cases + Small/mediumnumber of aspects/variables Why use such a research strategy? Answer to problem in social science: many variables,few cases (not enough for quantitative analysis) But also (according to Ragin): it is a deliberate choicein order to study patterns of diversity. Remember:qualitative approach commonalityquantitative approach diversity with regard to one 9. Research Goals Exploring Diversity Interpreting Cultural or HistoricalSignificance Advancing TheoryTypical goal: unravel different causalconditions connected to differentoutcomes (Ragin 1994: 108) 10. Characteristics Unites case orientation with variable orientation Detailed knowledge of cases important foranalysis, but also part of the research goal Studies cases as configurations (no isolation ofvariable) Analytic frame not as flexible/fluid as inqualitative research, but much more flexible thanin quantitative studies Importance of case selection (form of theoreticalsampling, rather than random selection),because of quasi-experimental 11. 3 comparative methods Method of agreement Method of difference QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis) 12. Method of agreement (MDSO) Based on John Stuart Mill Basic idea:In order to find explanations for a certainphenomenon (dependent variable), welook at the most different cases which allshare this particular feature Also known as: most different with sameoutcome (MDSO) 13. Method of agreement (II) Select dependent variable (what is to beexplained?): Ex: 2-party system Select cases: select cases as different aspossible, which all/both exhibit thedependent variable (USA, UK, 19th century,20th century) Analysis: look for common features in allthese cases: plurality electoral system(FPTP) 14. Method of AgreementCase IndependentvariablesDependentvariableCase 1 Context A (a,b,f,g) Outcome XCase 2 Context B (a,c,d,e) Outcome XTest case Context C (b) Outcome: not 15. Analysis Case 1 and 2 differ drastically, yet in bothcases the outcome X occurs The only common variable is a Reasoning: a is the cause of X (sufficientcondition: a leads always to X) 16. Problems Presumption: variable has always the sameconsequences (no matter of context) (peasantdiscontent in agrarian and industrial society,quite different consequences) Presumption: dependent variable is caused bythe same cause (what if different factorsproduce the same outcome?) Selection bias: by only looking at positive cases(with outcome x) we cannot know, whetherthere are cases were a exists yet X does notfollow. We need test case(s), where X did notoccur (hope that a was not present) 17. Method of Difference (MSDO) Based on John Stuart Mill Basic idea: Find the most similar caseswhich nevertheless differ with regard todependent variable (phenomenon to beexplained). The feature(s) these differentcases do NOT have in common explainswhether the result is x or not Also known as: most similar with differentoutcome (MSDO) 18. Method of Difference (II) Classify cases according to dependentvariable Select cases that differ with regard todependent variable yet are most similarwith regard to potential causes Look for existing differences with regard toindependent variables (potential causes) 19. Method of DifferenceCase IndependentvariablesDependentvariableCase 1 Context A (a,b,c,d) Outcome XCase 2 Context A (a,c,d) Outcome 20. Analysis Case 1 + 2 are very similar with respect tocontext (broad historical situation, institutionalsetting etc.) and potential causes Yet in case 1 X occurs, in case 2 it does notoccur Case 1 and 2 differ only in one independentvariable (b) Therefore: b is the cause of X (necessarycondition: without b there is no X) 21. Problems b is necessary, but is it sufficient (perhapsa + b are the cause)? How to control for context (when is it thesame)? How to distinguish between context andindependent variable? 22. General Problems of Mills Methods Direction of causality can be contested (what iscause, what is effect) Isolating variables. Patterns of variables(specific configurations) can not be detected ascause Do not account for multiple causation Uses dichotomous variables (a, non-a), whatabout matters of degree? No relationships of a probabilistic nature can bedetected (relationships that are not perfect, butwork only most of the time) 23. Purpose of Mills Methods Help to explore diversity Help to eliminate wrong hypotheses Help to getting closer to a causalexplanationBut should not be pursued tomechanisticallyNeed to be grounded in 24. Qualitative Comparative Research Ragins answer to (some) problems ofMills methods Allows for and detects configurations ofvariables as causes and allows formultiple causation Problem still: Dichotomous variables (not always possible) Non probabilistic, only deterministic 25. You should know: All research is comparative Some technical terms Classification v. Typology Dependent v. Independent variable Characteristics and goals of comparativeresearch Basic idea of Method ofAgreement/DifferenceadmPisrsoiobnle.emdhsol otmhese methods