ADMINISTERING MEDICATION Presentation on ADMINISTERING MEDICATION

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Transcript of ADMINISTERING MEDICATION Presentation on ADMINISTERING MEDICATION

  • Slide 1
  • ADMINISTERING MEDICATION Presentation on ADMINISTERING MEDICATION
  • Slide 2
  • Introduction Why might our pets need to receive medication? Where might we get the medication from? Who would administer this medication? What are the different ways of administering medication? Does anyone have any previous experience of giving any type of medication?
  • Slide 3
  • Pharmacology Pharmacology is the study of medicines, including: The source of the drug The composition of the drug The effects of the drug Administering Medication
  • Slide 4
  • Drug Groups The Veterinary Medicines Regulations classify all animal medicines into one of four categories: POM-V (Prescription Only Medicine Veterinarian) must be prescribed by a veterinary surgeon, and can be dispensed by any veterinary surgeon or pharmacist Examples of POM-V medications include vaccinations or antibiotics. Administering Medication
  • Slide 5
  • POM-VPS (Prescription Only Medicine Veterinarian, Pharmacist, Suitably Qualified Person) must be prescribed by a veterinary surgeon, pharmacist or SQP, and can be dispensed by any of those persons Examples of POM-VPS medicines include many medications for horses and farm animals. Drug Groups Administering Medication
  • Slide 6
  • NFA-VPS (Non-Food Animal medicine Veterinarian, Pharmacist, Suitably Qualified Person) must be supplied by a veterinary surgeon, pharmacist or SQP Examples of NFA-VPS medicines include certain flea and worm treatments. Drug Groups Administering Medication
  • Slide 7
  • AVM-GSL (Authorised Veterinary Medicine General Sales List) can be supplied by anyone. Examples include vitamins and minerals. Administering Medication Drug Groups
  • Slide 8
  • Controlled Drugs are a special category of drugs that can be misused by humans. Controlled drugs are regulated by the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 1985, which divides them into five different groups. These groups are either banned from possession or use, have their use carefully monitored, or must be kept in a locked cupboard, depending on how dangerous they are. An example of a controlled drug is morphine. Administering Medication Controlled Drugs
  • Slide 9
  • Drugs may be administered in various ways. The route chosen depends on the part of the body the drug needs to affect, how quickly the drug needs to work, and the ability of the owner to give the drug. Administering Medication Drug Routes
  • Slide 10
  • Topical Some drugs can be applied directly to where they are needed. These are called TOPICAL preparations and can be used to treat eye, ear or skin problems. Topical preparations are available in different forms:- CREAMS the drug is dissolved in water and mixed with oil or fat. Creams spread easily and penetrate the outer layers of the skin. OINTMENTS the drugs are present in a base of wax or fat. They do not penetrate the skin. POWDERS fine powders to apply to the skin e.g. flea powders. MEDICATED SHAMPOOS drugs mixed with detergents which penetrate the coat. Shampoos are left in contact with the skin for the recommended amount of time and then should be rinsed off thoroughly. SPRAYS a way of applying liquids in fine droplet form e.g. flea sprays. Administering Medication
  • Slide 11
  • Examples EYE & EAR MEDICATIONS these are both examples of topical medication. Eye medications should be sterile. Once they have been opened they should be stored only for the length of time recommended by the manufacturer. Administering Medication
  • Slide 12
  • Systemic Some drugs cannot be applied directly where they are needed. Instead they need to travel through the animals system until they get to where they are needed. These drugs are said to be given SYSTEMICALLY. Examples include oral preparations and injections. Administering Medication
  • Slide 13
  • Oral Preparations These are given by mouth. This is often the only way that owners can give medications to their pets. There are some problems with giving drugs orally- It takes longer for a drug to be absorbed into the bloodstream than if the drug was given by injection Some drugs may be broken down by digestive enzymes Having food in the gut may slow down the absorption of the drug Administering Medication
  • Slide 14
  • TABLETS tablets are made by taking a powdered drug and compressing it. Many tablets are then coated with another substance e.g sugar coating. This coating protects the tablet from moisture and hides any bitter taste. Crushing a coated tablet destroys this protective layer so always check if a tablet can be crushed first. Oral Preparations Administering Medication
  • Slide 15
  • CAPSULES capsules are made up of powder or granules inside a gelatine capsule MEDICINES liquid medicines contain the drug dissolved or suspended in water. Suspensions need to be shaken well before dosing. Oral Preparations Administering Medication
  • Slide 16
  • Parenteral Preparations These are drugs that can be given by injection. All drugs in this form must be sterile. The most common routes of injection of drugs in small animal practice are:- INTRAVENOUS (I/V) directly into a vein INTRAMUSCULAR (I/M) into a muscle SUBCUTANEOUS (S/CUT) under the skin (usually given into the scruff of the neck) INTRAPERITONEAL (I/P) into the abdomen Administering Medication
  • Slide 17
  • Other methods include: NASAL up the nose (e.g. kennel cough vaccine) RECTAL into the rectum (e.g. diazepam to stop fits) Administering Medication Parenteral Preparations
  • Slide 18
  • Health & Safety and Administering Medicines Health and safety should be considered in order to make sure that we dont get hurt whilst administering medicines. It is also important to ensure that the animal doesnt get hurt or frightened. Administering Medication
  • Slide 19
  • What are the risks to people when administering medicines? Getting bitten Getting scratched Accidental ingestion of drugs Administering Medication
  • Slide 20
  • How can these risks be minimised? Follow instructions carefully Make sure that the animal is adequately restrained Use sprays in a well ventilated area Wear appropriate PPEs (e.g. gloves, mask etc) Administering Medication
  • Slide 21
  • What are the risks to animals when administering medicines? Overdose Allergic reaction Wrong administration route selected Animal stressed Animal gets injured Administering Medication
  • Slide 22
  • What are the risks to animals when administering medicines? Only giving prescribed medicines to the animal that they have been prescribed for Follow instructions carefully when administering medication Monitor the animal for any signs of side effects Make sure that you know how to handle and restrain the animal correctly. Administering Medication
  • Slide 23
  • Useful Links http://www.vmd.gov.uk/Publications/Consultations/VMR06/VMGNote03.pdf Administering Medication