Activity 4 appendicular skeleton

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The Appendicular The Appendicular Skeleton Skeleton Salt Lake Community College BIO 2325 Compiled by : Kathryn Watson Edited by: Claudia Gonzales (Anatomy Assistant)

Transcript of Activity 4 appendicular skeleton

The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton

Salt Lake Community CollegeBIO 2325

Compiled by : Kathryn WatsonEdited by: Claudia Gonzales (Anatomy Assistant)

The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton• 2 pairs of limbs and 2 girdles2 pairs of limbs and 2 girdles

• Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbsPectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs

• Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbsPelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs

• 3-Segmented limbs3-Segmented limbs• Upper = armUpper = arm

• ArmArm• ForearmForearm• HandHand

• Lower = legLower = leg• ThighThigh• LegLeg• FootFoot

Helpful TermsHelpful Terms

Pectoral GirdlePectoral Girdle

• ClavicleClavicle– Sternal end (medial): articulates with sternum.Sternal end (medial): articulates with sternum.– Acromial End (lateral): articulates with scapula.Acromial End (lateral): articulates with scapula.– Conoid Tubercle: inferior and posterior.Conoid Tubercle: inferior and posterior.

• ScapulaScapula– Superior BorderSuperior Border– Suprascapular notchSuprascapular notch– Medial or vertebral borderMedial or vertebral border– Lateral or axillary borderLateral or axillary border


Pectoral GirdlePectoral Girdle• Superior AngleSuperior Angle• Inferior AngleInferior Angle• SpineSpine: posterior ridge of bone.: posterior ridge of bone.• AcromionAcromion: posterior process continuous to spine.: posterior process continuous to spine.• Coracoid ProcessCoracoid Process: smaller anterior projection.: smaller anterior projection.• Supraspinous FossaSupraspinous Fossa: depression superior to spine.: depression superior to spine.• Infraspinous FossaInfraspinous Fossa: broad surface inferior to spine.: broad surface inferior to spine.• Subscapular Fossa: Subscapular Fossa: Anterior surface of scapula.Anterior surface of scapula.• Glenoid Cavity: lateralGlenoid Cavity: lateral; articulates with humerus.; articulates with humerus.• Supraglenoid TubercleSupraglenoid Tubercle: superior to glenoid cavity.: superior to glenoid cavity.• Infreglenoid Tubercle: Infreglenoid Tubercle: Inferior to glenoid cavityInferior to glenoid cavity


Upper Limb- ArmUpper Limb- Arm

• HumerusHumerus• Head: medial; articulates with glenoid cavity.Head: medial; articulates with glenoid cavity.• Greater Tubercle: more prominentGreater Tubercle: more prominent• Lesser Tubercle: smaller of tubercles.Lesser Tubercle: smaller of tubercles.• Intertubercular Sulcus: between two tubercles.Intertubercular Sulcus: between two tubercles.• Anatomical Neck: between tubercles and head.Anatomical Neck: between tubercles and head.• Surgical Neck: common fracture site.Surgical Neck: common fracture site.• Deltoid Tuberosity: attachment site for deltoid.Deltoid Tuberosity: attachment site for deltoid.• Coronoid Fossa: articulates with coronoid processCoronoid Fossa: articulates with coronoid process

Upper Limb- ArmUpper Limb- Arm

– Olecranon Fossa: articulates with olecranon.Olecranon Fossa: articulates with olecranon.– Radial Fossa: articulates with Radius.Radial Fossa: articulates with Radius.– Medial EpicondyleMedial Epicondyle– Lateral EpicondyleLateral Epicondyle– Trochlea: articulates with trochlear notch; Trochlea: articulates with trochlear notch;

medial.medial.– Capitulum: articulates with radius; lateral.Capitulum: articulates with radius; lateral.– Radial Groove: Radial nerve and vessels travel Radial Groove: Radial nerve and vessels travel

through it.through it.


Upper Limb- ForearmUpper Limb- Forearm• UlnaUlna

• Olecranon: articulates with olecranon fossa.Olecranon: articulates with olecranon fossa.• Styloid Process (medial)Styloid Process (medial)• Coronoid Process: articulates with coronoid fossa.Coronoid Process: articulates with coronoid fossa.• Trochlear Notch: articulates with trochlea.Trochlear Notch: articulates with trochlea.

• RadiusRadius• HeadHead• NeckNeck• Radial Tuberosity: attachment for biceps brachiiRadial Tuberosity: attachment for biceps brachii• Ulnar Notch: articulates with ulna.Ulnar Notch: articulates with ulna.• Styloid Process (lateral)Styloid Process (lateral)

Ulna and RadiusUlna and Radius

Upper Limb- Wrist and Upper Limb- Wrist and HandHand

• Carpals (8)Carpals (8)• Proximal row (lateral to medial)Proximal row (lateral to medial)

• Scaphoid BoneScaphoid Bone• Lunate BoneLunate Bone• Triquetrum BoneTriquetrum Bone• Pisiform BonePisiform Bone

• Distal row (lateral to medial)Distal row (lateral to medial)• Trapezium BoneTrapezium Bone• Trapezoid BoneTrapezoid Bone• Capitate BoneCapitate Bone• Hamate BoneHamate Bone

Upper Limb- Wrist and Upper Limb- Wrist and HandHand

• Metacarpals (1 through 5)Metacarpals (1 through 5)

• Phalanges (1 through 5)Phalanges (1 through 5)– Proximal phalanx (1 through 5) Proximal phalanx (1 through 5) – Middle phalanx (2 through 5)Middle phalanx (2 through 5)– Distal phalanx ( 1 through 5)Distal phalanx ( 1 through 5)

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle• Os Coxae: Os Coxae: composed of fused ilium, ischium, and pubis.composed of fused ilium, ischium, and pubis.

• Acetabulum: articulates with femoral head.Acetabulum: articulates with femoral head.• Oburator ForamenOburator Foramen

• IliumIlium• Iliac CrestIliac Crest• Anterior Superior Iliac SpineAnterior Superior Iliac Spine• Anterior inferior Iliac SpineAnterior inferior Iliac Spine• Posterior Superior Iliac SpinePosterior Superior Iliac Spine• Posterior Inferior Iliac SpinePosterior Inferior Iliac Spine

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle

• Greater Sciatic Notch: passageway to sciatic nerve.Greater Sciatic Notch: passageway to sciatic nerve.• Iliac FossaIliac Fossa• Auricular Surface: articulates with sacrumAuricular Surface: articulates with sacrum

• IschiumIschium• Body of IschiumBody of Ischium• Ischial SpineIschial Spine• Lesser Sciatic NotchLesser Sciatic Notch• Ramus of IschiumRamus of Ischium• Ischial TuberosityIschial Tuberosity

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle

• PubisPubis– Body of pubisBody of pubis– Pubic TuberclePubic Tubercle– Pubic CrestPubic Crest– Superior Pubic RamusSuperior Pubic Ramus– Inferior Pubic RamusInferior Pubic Ramus

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle

Lower Limbs- Thigh and Lower Limbs- Thigh and KneeKnee

• FemurFemur• Head of Femur: articulates with acetabulum.Head of Femur: articulates with acetabulum.• FoveaFovea• Neck of FemurNeck of Femur• Greater TrochanterGreater Trochanter• Lesser TrochanterLesser Trochanter• Intertrochanteric Crest: connects trochanters.Intertrochanteric Crest: connects trochanters.• Shaft of FemurShaft of Femur• Gluteal Tuberosity: attachment of gluteus maximus.Gluteal Tuberosity: attachment of gluteus maximus.

Lower Limbs- Thigh and Lower Limbs- Thigh and KneeKnee

• Linea Aspera: posterior; attachment for muscles.Linea Aspera: posterior; attachment for muscles.• Medial Condyle of FemurMedial Condyle of Femur• Medial Epicondyle of FemurMedial Epicondyle of Femur• Adductor Tubercle: attachment for adductor magnusAdductor Tubercle: attachment for adductor magnus• Lateral Condyle of FemurLateral Condyle of Femur• Lateral Epicondyle of FemurLateral Epicondyle of Femur• Intercondylar Fossa: separates condylesIntercondylar Fossa: separates condyles

• PatellaPatella

Femur and PatellaFemur and Patella

Lower Limb- Leg and FootLower Limb- Leg and Foot• TibiaTibia

• Medial Condyle of TibiaMedial Condyle of Tibia• Lateral Condyle of TibiaLateral Condyle of Tibia• Intercondylar Eminence: separates condylesIntercondylar Eminence: separates condyles• Tibial Tuberosity: attachment for patellar ligamentTibial Tuberosity: attachment for patellar ligament• Medial MalleolusMedial Malleolus• Anterior Border (crest)Anterior Border (crest)

• FibulaFibula• Head of FibulaHead of Fibula• Neck of FibulaNeck of Fibula• Lateral MalleolusLateral Malleolus

Tibia and FibulaTibia and Fibula

Lower Limb- Leg and FootLower Limb- Leg and Foot

• Tarsals (7)Tarsals (7)• Talus BoneTalus Bone• Calcaneus BoneCalcaneus Bone• Navicular BoneNavicular Bone• Medial Cuneiform Bone Medial Cuneiform Bone • Intermediate Cuneiform BoneIntermediate Cuneiform Bone• Lateral Cuneiform BoneLateral Cuneiform Bone• Cuboid BoneCuboid Bone

Lower Limb- Leg and FootLower Limb- Leg and Foot

• MetatarsalsMetatarsals (1 through 5) (1 through 5)

• PhalangesPhalanges• Proximal Phalanx (1 through 5)Proximal Phalanx (1 through 5)• Middle Phalanx (2 through 5)Middle Phalanx (2 through 5)• Distal Phalanx (1 through 5)Distal Phalanx (1 through 5)