Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening

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Transcript of Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening

  • 22 Pennsylvania Code, Chapter 4

    APPENDIX A

    Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speakingand Listening

    and

    Academic Standards for Mathematics

  • Academic Standards forReading, Writing, Speaking

    and Listening

    Pennsylvania Department of Education

  • Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening

    I. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Introduction . II.

    THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

    Learning to Read Independently ... Purposes for Reading Word Recognition Skills Vocabulary Development Comprehension and Interpretation Fluency

    1.1.

    Reading Critically in All Content Areas ... Detail Inferences Fact from Opinion Comparison Analysis and Evaluation

    1.2.

    Reading, Analyzing and Interpreting Literature . Literary Elements Literary Devices Poetry Drama

    1.3.

    Types of Writing .. Narrative Informational Persuasive

    1.4.

    Quality of Writing ... Focus Content Organization Style Conventions

    1.5.

    Speaking and Listening ... Listening Skills Speaking Skills Discussion Presentation

    1.6.

    Characteristics and Function of the English Language ... Word Origins Variations Application

    1.7.

    Research ... Selection Location of Information Organization

    1.8.

    Glossary III.

  • Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening

    1

    II. INTRODUCTION

    This document includes Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Standards:

    1.1. Learning to Read Independently 1.2. Reading Critically in All Content Areas 1.3. Reading, Analyzing and Interpreting Literature 1.4. Types of Writing

    1.5. Quality of Writing 1.6. Speaking and Listening 1.7. Characteristics and Function of the English Language 1.8. Research

    The Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Standards describe what students should know and be able to do with the Englishlanguage at four grade levels (third, fifth, eighth and eleventh). The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learningessential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or aprescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students needs.

    The language arts Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening are unique because they are processes that students use to learn andmake sense of their world. Students do not read reading; they read about history, science, mathematics and other content areas aswell as about topics for their interest and entertainment. Similarly, students do not write writing; they use written words to expresstheir knowledge and ideas and to inform or entertain others.

    Because of the unique nature of the language arts, all teachers in a school will use the Reading, Writing, Speaking and ListeningStandards. The standards define the skills and strategies employed by effective readers and writers; therefore, all teachers will assisttheir students in learning them through multiple classroom situations in all the subject areas.

    The Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Standards also provide parents and community members with information about whatstudents should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly definedtarget provided by the standards, parents, students, educators and community members become partners in learning success.

    A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

  • Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening

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    1.1. Learning to Read Independently

    1.1.3. GRADE 3 1.1.5. GRADE 5 1.1.8. GRADE 8 1.1.11. GRADE 11

    Pennsylvanias public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire theknowledge and skills needed to:

    A. Identify the purposes and types of text(e.g., literature, information) beforereading.

    B. Preview the text formats (e.g., title,

    headings, chapters and table ofcontents).

    C. Use knowledge of phonics, word

    analysis (e.g., root words, prefixes andsuffixes), syllabication, picture andcontext clues to decode and understandnew words during reading.

    D. Read text using self-monitoring

    comprehension strategies (e.g., predict,revise predictions, reread, use textorganization including headings,graphics, and charts, and adjustreading rate).

    E. Acquire a reading vocabulary by

    identifying and correctly using words(e.g., antonyms, synonyms, categoriesof words). Use a dictionary whenappropriate.

    A. Establish the purpose for reading a

    type of text (literature, information)before reading.

    B. Select texts for a particular purpose

    using the format of the text as a guide. C. Use knowledge of phonics,

    syllabication, prefixes, suffixes, thedictionary or context clues to decodeand understand new words duringreading. Use these words accurately inwriting and speaking.

    D. Identify the basic ideas and facts in

    text using strategies (e.g., priorknowledge, illustrations and headings)and information from other sources tomake predictions about text.

    E. Acquire a reading vocabulary by

    correctly identifying and using words(e.g., synonyms, homophones,homographs, words with roots,suffixes, prefixes). Use a dictionaryor related reference.

    A. Locate appropriate texts (literature,

    information, documents) for anassigned purpose before reading.

    B. Identify and use common

    organizational structures and graphicfeatures to comprehend information.

    C. Use knowledge of root words as wellas context clues and glossaries tounderstand specialized vocabulary inthe content areas during reading. Usethese words accurately in speaking andwriting.

    D. Identify basic facts and ideas in text

    using specific strategies (e.g., recallgenre characteristics, set a purpose forreading, generate essential questions asaids to comprehension and clarifyunderstanding through rereading anddiscussion).

    E. Expand a reading vocabulary byidentifying and correctly using idiomsand words with literal and figurativemeanings. Use a dictionary or relatedreference.

    A. Locate various texts, media andtraditional resources for assigned andindependent projects before reading.

    B. Analyze the structure of informationalmaterials explaining how authors usedthese to achieve their purposes.

    C. Use knowledge of root words andwords from literary works to recognizeand understand the meaning of newwords during reading. Use thesewords accurately in speaking andwriting.

    D. Identify, describe, evaluate andsynthesize the essential ideas in text.Assess those reading strategies thatwere most effective in learning from avariety of texts.

    E. Establish a reading vocabulary byidentifying and correctly using newwords acquired through the study oftheir relationships to other words. Usea dictionary or related reference.

  • Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening

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    F. Understand the meaning of and usecorrectly new vocabulary learned invarious subject areas.

    G. Demonstrate after reading

    understanding and interpretation ofboth fiction and nonfiction text. Retell or summarize the major

    ideas, themes or procedures of thetext.

    Connect the new information orideas in the text to knowninformation.

    Clarify ideas and understandingsthrough rereading and discussion.

    Make responsible assertions aboutthe text by citing evidence fromthe text.

    H. Demonstrate fluency andcomprehension in reading. Read familiar materials aloud with

    accuracy. Self-correct mistakes. Use appropriate rhythm, flow,

    meter and pronunciation. Read a variety of genres and types

    of text. Demonstrate comprehension

    (Standard 1.1.3.G.). (Recommend: 25 books/year)

    F. Identify, understand the meaning of

    and use correctly key vocabulary fromvarious subject areas.

    G. Demonstrate after reading

    understanding and interpretation ofboth fiction and nonfiction text. Summarize the major ideas,

    themes or procedures of the text. Relate new information or ideas

    from the text to that learnedthrough additional reading andmedia (e.g., film, audiotape).

    Clarify ideas and understandingsthrough rereading and discussion.

    Make responsible assertions aboutthe ideas from the text by citingevidence.

    Extend ideas found in the text.

    H. Demonstrate fluency andcomprehension in reading. Read familiar materials aloud with

    accuracy. Self-correct mistakes. Use appropriate rhythm, flow,

    meter and pronunciation. Read a variety of genres and types

    of text. Demonstrate comprehension

    (Standard 1.1.5.G.). (Recommend: 25 books/year)

    F. Understand the meaning of and apply

    key vocabulary across the varioussubject areas.

    G. Demonstrate after reading

    understanding and interpretation ofboth fiction and nonfiction text,including public documents. Make, and support with evidence,

    assertions about texts. Compare and contrast texts using

    themes, settings, characters andideas.

    Make extensions to related ideas,topics or information.

    Describe the context of adocument.

    Analyze the positions, argumentsand evidence in public documents.

    H. Demonstrate fluency and

    comprehension in reading. Read familiar materials a