ACA Material Adobe Photoshop CS5
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of ACA Material Adobe Photoshop CS5
Elizabeth Eisner Reding
Adobe Photoshop CS5 Revealed Additional ACA Material
This document provides additional information for Adobe Photoshop CS5 ACA certification.
How to use this document: Use this information in conjunction with Adobe Photoshop CS5 Revealed to prepare for the Adobe Certified Associate (ACA) exam. Domain 1.0 Setting Project Requirements
1.1 Identify the purpose, audience, and audience needs for preparing image(s)
Considering the audience for your work may not seem like a design issue, but if you design without keeping the needs and expectations of your target audience in mind, they wont look twice at your beautiful creation. Understanding the age, occupation(s), gender, education, residence, ethnicity, and computer literacy (if working on a design for the web) of your audience can affect your choice of images and language. Understanding the ethnicity of your audience can be a boon for developing a design that will engage, but you also need to be cautious not to slip into stereotypes. For example, how would the images differ if you were designing a birthday card for a man, a woman, or a child? Or how would the language used on a poster change if you knew the poster was intended for an international audience, a group of doctors, or a class of children in elementary school? Would your website design change if the target audience were new to the web?
1.2 Demonstrate knowledge of standard copyright rules for images and image use
Another method of determining copyright on an image is to identify the date of publication of the image. In the United States, works created before 1923 are in the public domain and may be freely used. Many works created after
1923 are subject to copyright laws that provide for copyright protection for specific lengths of time. 1.3 Demonstrate knowledge of project management tasks and responsibilities
Project managers, whether in advertising or website development, have a similar set responsibilities and tasks. Project managers are responsible for the overall success of the project, which includes
defining the project objective(s) developing a project plan identifying and securing staff and other resources determining and assigning tasks motivating team members and resolving conflict tracking process solving problems and keeping the project on track Project deliverables may include specifications, sketches, and comps, as well as the final design. A specification can be as simple as a list of what the client is looking for in their design or as complicated as outline of website elements along with the proposed behaviors and technology requirements. Sketches, also called comps (comprehensive artwork), are a way to present initial ideas to a client for their approval and feedback. 1.4 Communicate with others (such as peers and clients) about design plans
Opportunities for communication with your client should occur at multiple points during the project, depending upon the complexity of the project.
Each deliverable represents an opportunity to communicate with the client and to validate your design direction. Communication with other members of your team is equally important. Typically, project managers schedule regular team meetings where each member can update the team on his or her progress. For example, as a designer on a website project, for example, it is important to understand when your designs are due to the developers and the formats and file sizes they need, any of which could change over the course of the project. It is also important that you communicate client expectations about how a website design should work to the developers.
Domain 2.0 Identifying Design Elements When Preparing Images
2.1 Demonstrate knowledge of image resolution, image size, and image file format for web, video, and print
When preparing bitmap images for print production, you need to consider the line screen frequency that the printer will use to create halftones. Halftones are the small dots that are used to print continuous tone images, such as photographs or gradients (larger dots are used for darker areas and smaller dots for lighter areas).
Your image must have a high enough resolution for the printer to be able to make the halftone at the specified line screen frequency. The general rule of thumb is that the resolution of the bitmap image must be twice the line screen frequency.
Typically, the line screens frequency for newspapers is 90-100 lines per inch (lpi), for brochures is 133-175 lpi, and for fine art books is 150-200 lpi. Magazines can fall anywhere in the 133-200 lines per inch range. Printed vs. Onscreen Images
When an image is printed, whether on a color printer, or commercially using offset lithography, areas with color are broken (screened) into dots. These dots and how large or small they are, how close or far apart, and how they overlap other colors (typically, cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks) recreate the illusion of full color. The higher the screen valuereferred to as LPI, or lines per inchthe finer the detail and quality of the image. Newspapers generally use a coarse line screen (85 LPI) while art books use much higher numbers (anywhere from 150 LPI to 300 LPI). Magnifying these images will reveal the dots.
Printed elements are usually measured in inches, or points and picas (72 points per inch, 6 picas per inch). In newspaper publishing, the height of an article or advertisement is often referred to in lines.
Images that need to be resized for reproduction are scaled up or down, which was traditionally done using a photostatic camera. However, with the advent of computers, almost all images are scaled in Photoshop prior to printing, which then calls PPI, or resolution (see next), into play.
A bitmapped image displayed on a monitor, on the other hand, is more like a mosaic; side by side squares of color called pixels (typically, millions of colors, as opposed to the four process colors) that create the illusion of full color. The more pixels (picture elements) per square inchreferred to as PPI, or resolutionthe finer the detail and quality of the image. While image size in terms of resolution is based on pixels per inch, the dimensionsphysical size of an image can be referred to by any unit of measurement (inches, points, picas, millimeters, etc.).
When preparing an image for print or web in Photoshop the appropriate pixel per inch resolution is critical in determining the quality of the output, and in the case of the internet, creating a file size (in kilobytes, megabytes, and so on) that will download quickly.
Because continuous tone images have already been sampled into dots, whether they were created digitally, or scanned, it is difficult to maintain quality when the image is sampled up. That is to say, if the image is enlarged dimensionally, the pixels that define it are also being enlarged proportionately, degrading quality. If an image is enlarged while keeping the resolution the same, then Photoshop is using one of several algorithms that
invent visual information to create the additional pixels needed. In either case, the quality of the image is compromised.
The appropriate PPI for images that will be printed is between 1.5 and 2 times the LPI screen that is to be used. So, for a newspaper image, the PPI should be approximately 150. For something of higher quality, 300 PPI or higher is best.
For images that will be displayed on the web, 72-94 PPI is sufficient. Most web graphics are 72 PPI.
Image formats for PowerPoint and Word
For Microsoft Office applications, such as Word or PowerPoint, appropriate file formats include PNG and BMP.
2.2 Demonstrate knowledge of design principles, elements, and image composition
One important design principle is visual hierarchy. Visual hierarchy helps viewers process the information being presented through the relationships between page elements. Your use of a specific font, choice of font size, decision about line spacing or text indentation all influence which words in your message stand out to your readers. Visual hierarchy is not restricted to text. The relative importance of the various components of your image is also communicated through your choice of color, contrast, texture, shape, position, orientation, and size.
2.3 Demonstrate knowledge of typography
Placing text over a background image can make the text difficult to readfor example if the text color is close to any of the colors in the image.
On the web, text over an image can prevent a screen reader from reading the text since in that case, the text is actually part of the image. A background image on the web that is meant to stand alone also needs to be the same or larger than the width of the web page in the browser so that the image doesnt repeat, or some parts of the page do not appear without a background. Background images that create textures or subtle patterns are not usually an issue (if they are done right!).
A well-designed piece, whether for web or print, will have been developed to accommodate image and text. If the type is to be superimposed on an image, the art direction of the image (photograph or illustration) should have included sufficient empty or neutral space so any type placed in that area is legible. Another option is to use a semi-transparent block of color between the image and the text to provide sufficient contrast.
Printing or displaying text on a colored background requires thoughtful use of color for both the background and the text. Darker backgrounds require brighter colors for the text, and in many cases (especially for printed materials) a bolder font is necessary. Dark backgr